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Hist 151 Final

Note cards for the final in this course

Avignon Papacy Period in the 14th century when 7 popes reigned in France (Babalonian Capt.)
Conciliar Movement Christian movement; final authority with church council, not pope
John Wycliffe preached Biblical reforms and believed Christians should be poor
Joan of Arc Woman who fought in the Hundred Years War with the French
Black Death Massive disease that killed 30-60% of the population of England in 14th century
John Ball one of the leaders of the Peasant Revolt in 1381
Flagellants a herectical sect who whipped themselves publicly
Hundred Years War Series of battles fought for the French Throne
humanism philosophical theory that gave appreciation to humanity, the individual, and man; independent thought
virtu excellence
Renaissance Man One who knows how to do a lot of things well
Mirandola Pico Della, Believed that men had the power to make themselves into whatever they chose; good in man
Pope Innocent 3rd Disagreed with Mirandola, basically men are bad
Culture of Merit people were judged based upon what they achieve during their life, allows for social mobility
Petrach The father of humanism; elevated Latin Texts and wrote letters to the dead
Boccaccio writer of humanism; wrote Decameron (book about daily life during Plague)
Medici Powerful family who ruled italy
Despotism when one central power rules with absolute power; Medici's tried to use it to create appearance of repub.
Castiglione Wrote book of the courtier; gave men tips on how to court
Bruni developed the humanities curriculum
Life in Italy Urbanization needed. Italian mobility more cultivated and refined than northern europe. more wealth=more culture
Populo Grosso the fat people--the wealthy people who had power
populo minuto the little people
civic humanism public life seen as a virtue and noble--honorable to participate in politics
Lorenzetti painter who painted 2 images of good and bad gov't
Plague effect on Italy undermined the relationship between the rich and poor that allowed the republic to work
Ciompi Rebellion uprising of lower classes
albezi family family that came to power in 1434 as a result of the ciompi rebellion; rival was medici family
Florence v. Milan almost like athens and sparta
Peace of Lodi Peace treaty signed between Florence and Milan to end conflict
Forein invasion in Italy Chales 5th of spain and Charles 8th--charles 5th wins but Italy suffers because it is used as the battleground
Machiavelli wrote humanist texts-believes in republic form of gov't
Early Modern Period sign of the break of medieval period
characteristics of EMP 1 increased secularism-rational and secular thought prevalent
Characteristics of EMP 2 religious division-catholicism loses monopoly and moves toward protestantism
characteristics of EMP 3 european expansion-cultural expansion and political changes
characteristics of EMP 4 New Market Economy-move toward capitalism; trace & commerce
characteristics of EMP 5 Rise of centralized states-states most powerful at expense of church
christian humanism the idea that man can control his fate-had agency with God and should be able to read scripture
Johannes Gutenberg brought printing press with removable type to Europe
Erasmus Father of christian humanism--translated the bible due to belief of availability
St. Thomas More wrote book Utopia-based on imaginary country with no social hierarchy, injustice or private proverty
Francois Rabelais exxaggerated bawdy and lewd sense of humor
Gargantua giant book
Indulgences writ of...the pope can transfer good works to sinners which means less time in purgatory
treasury of merit idea tht doing good for the church will get you into heaven
good works paying tithes and such
Johann Tetzel known for selling indulgences
John calvin Christian reformer--idea of calvinism
calvinism predestination-god has already determined who should go to heaven
Protestant Work ethic might be why capitalism thrived alongside calvinism
hugonots french calvinists
Anabaptists believed in adult baptism; no social hierarchy; poligamy
Munster Rebellion anabaptists took over the city; a lutheran prince slaughters the anabaptist with an army
German Peasants War 1525; revole of German speaking areas of lower class people; peasants suffered mass losses
Catherine of Aragon Henry 8th's wife from Spain-aunt of Charles 5th, so pope would not grant divorce
Act of Supremacy created by Elizabeth I; gave her complete control of the Chruch of England
Elizabethan Settlement the act of supre. and act of uniformity that was a religious settlement that all would be Anglican
Mary v. Elizabeth Mary sought to go back to Catholic tradition, but Elizabeth reversed it back to protestantism
Ignatius Loyola Spanish Founder of the Jesuits
Jesuits Troops of Catholic religion loyal to pope and church; disapproved of predestination
Schmakldic War the scme league-german princes who wanted protestant reform; religious struggle with charles 5th.Charles 5th wins
Ausburg Peace decision that the ruling prince's religious belief will be the belief of those people. 1555
Spanish Armada Phillip's decision to invade england because of insult by elizabeth I as well as calvinist rebellions
Concordat of Bologna agreement with pope that gives the french kings the right to appoint church officials
St. bart's day massacre assassinations followed by roman catholic mob violence
edict of nantes calvinists can practice faith at home and in towns where they are the majority
3o years war began in bohemia-1617
defenstration of prague the bohemian nobles (calvinists) threw catholics out of the window into trash and manure
Destruction of madgeburg when the french intervene and meet at germany, germany is destroyed
Treaty of Westphalia ends the 30 years war by creating countours of other countries
epistemology proving that what is known is actually true a method of obtaining knowledge
Francis Bacon inductive reasoning-small observations lead to one big conclucion
Rene Descartes Deductive reasoning-taking one large conclusion and making small ones out of it; "I think, therefore I am"
copernicus responsible for deciding the Earth revolved around the sun
kepler 3 laws of planetary motion
galileo moon and other plantes composed of same substance
Motives for european expansion economic, religious, individualism
means increases in technology, and financing from other countries
Juan Gines Seplveda believes spanish people to be superior to native americans, and do not need to be treated well--born to be slaves
Charles 5th and native americans believes that the native americans should be respected as humans
Bartolomew and native americans publicizes abuses of native americans
price revolution when there is a great increase in prices
inflation when the dollar value decreases, can be good for the economy because people are now either spending or investing
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet To oppose the King is to oppose God
Thomas Hobbes rejects that the kings power is derived from God and that all people are inherently equal
social contract theory idea that people enter into contract with the government
100 years war war between england and france that has been waging for 100 years--results in multiple changes
INtendant system they will rule the 40 sections of france and report to the king, nobles usually did this, step to centralized power
thirty year war german and protestant war (calvinist)
Louis XIV and his wants to have all power, and relies on middle class to staff bureacracy
Versailles domestication of the nobility
absolutism form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by all other institutions
constitutionalism government run by a king or a group of governing bodies that have to abide by the laws in the constitution
John Locke humans have inherent natural rights
James I had the desire to have a absolutism again
Charles I would act without parliament's consent
Petition of Right only taxes levied by parliament were valid and the king could not rule on them
the long parliament a stand-off between parliament and James
Oliver Cromwell led the parliament army they defeat charles I and execute him
William and Mary rulers in late 1600s who agreed to bill of rights and to respect parliament
Enlightenment Building bridge to modern era with scientific revolution, writers, rational thought, belief of human progress
Basic vision for western vis equality ,progress, and tolerance
Created by: dtenney