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moving material through membranes into body absorption
changing absorbed materials into other compounds assimilation
releasing energy from foods respiration
moving substances throughout body circulation
toward the front of the body anterior
toward the back of the body posterior
away from the point of attachment distal
toward the point of attachment proximal
toward the surface of the body superficial
away from the surface deep
toward the midline medial
away from the midline lateral
lengthwise plane left to right sides sagittal section
crosswire plane top and bottom halves transverse section
upper arm brachial
neck cervical
eye cavity orbital
lower back lumbar
buttocks gluteal
arm pit axillary
abdomen abdomial cavity
brain/head cranial cavity
gentiles pelvic cavity
heart pericardial cavity
lungs pleural cavity
diaphragm thoracic cavity
spine vertebral cavity
same chemical formula different structure an isomer
what properties of carbon make it such a versatile atom in compounds
all single bonds between C atoms fully fills with H saturated
one or more double bonds between C atoms - spaces for more H (monosat and poliunsat) unsaturated
cellular organelle enclosed by a double-layerd porous membrane and containing DNA the dense core of an atom composed of proteins and neurons nucleus
organelle housing enzymes that catalyze the reactions of aerobic respiration mitochondria
organlle composed of a system of connected membranous tubules and vesicles along which protein in synthesized endoplasmic reticulum
organelle that contains digestive enzymes lyosomes
an organelle that prepares cellular products for secretion golgi apparatus
where is epithelial tissue found throughout the body
what does epithelial tissues functions covers organs, lines cavities, covers and produces glands, forms barriers, secretes, and absorbs
what are the characteristics of epithelial tissue a vascular, high mitotic rate, tightly packed basement membrane and 1 free surface
where is connective tissue found throughout the body
what are the functions of the connective tissues bind structures, support protection, filler
what are the characteristics of connective tissue extracellular matrix- fibers, ground substances
what system- framework, protection--bones, ligaments, cartilage skeletal
what system- contraction-- skeletal muscles muscular
what system- sense internal and external changes and sends messages-- brain, spinal cord, sense organs, nerves nervous
what system- secrete hormones-- glands endocrine
what system- carries materials to cells-- hears, blood vessels cardiovascular
what system- carries fluids back to blood and provides protection lymphatic/immune
what system- breaks down and absorbes nutrients-- liver gall bladder, pancreas digestive
what system- o2 into blood and co2 out-- lungs, bronchi, trachea respiratory
what system- removes waste and excess h20-- kidneys, ureters, bladder urinary
connective tissue containing 2 or more sensory nerve fibers meissners corpuscles
connective tissue containing nerve fiber found deep in subcutaneous tissue containing ligaments pacinian corpuscles
exocrine gland in skin that secretes a mixture of water, salt ,uren and bodliey wastes sweat gland
inner layer of dense connective tissue: collagen and elastin fibers, blood vessels, smooth muscles, nerves dermis
outer layer of stratified, no blood squamous epithelium epidermis
cartilage cells reside in lacunae (spaces) compeletly surrounded by ECM chondrocytes
older cells pushed up from stratum basale and harden as cells die and percentage of keratin increases keratiniztion
produce pigments, lots= dark hair, medium= blond, none= white, mix= gray melanocytes
epidermal cells only redness and some swelling heals in 2 weeks 1st degree burn
destroys some epidermis and some dermis blisters occur 2nd degree
destroys epidermis, dermis and accessory organs skin: dry leathery, red to black to white 3rd degree
secrete into blood ex: thyroid, pituitary endocrine
secrete onto surface or cavities ex: salivary sweet, sebzceous (skin oils), pancreas exocrine
bone shaft, long main portion diaphysis
ends both proximal and distal epiehyses epiphysis
increase osteoblast activity, inhibit osteoblast calcitonin
infant soft spots, ossification is incomplete, allowing skull compression durning delivery fontanels
bone separated by irregular spaces spongy bone
dense bone tissue compact bone
inner lining endosteum
outer lining periosteum
what does synarthroris stand for fibrous joints
what is the movement of the fibrous join immovable
where are the fibrous joints found between the cranial bones, teeth, epitleseal plates
what does amphiarthrosis stand for cartilaginous joints
what is the movement of the cartilaginous joint slightly movable
what does diarthrosis stand for the synovial joints
what is the movement of the synovial joint freely movable
where is the synovial joint found the hip, knee, phalanges
bone to bone ligament
muscle to bone tendon
bone to bone suture
moving away from the body abduction
moving toward the body adduction
reduced angle between bones flexion
increased angle between bones extension
excess extension at joint hyperextension
movement around an axis rotation
movement so that the end follows a circular path circumduction
turning hand palm up supination
foot so sole is outward eversion
foot so sole is inward inversion
moving a part forward protraction
moving a part backward retraction
what joined- all planes and rotation, flexion/extension/adduction/abduction/internal amd external rotation--shoulder,hip ball and socket joint
what joint- flexion and extension--elbow, phalanges hinge joint
what joint- sliding or twisting-- between carpels, tarsels, ribs, sternum gliding joint
what joint- roation around a central axis--proximal ends of radius, ulna, atlas, and axis pivot joint
what are the 3 different type of muscle cells skeletal, cardiac, smooth
what are these actin and myosin myofibrils
what is the functional unit of skeletal muscles sarcomere
what is the plasma membrane sacolemma
what attach to actin myosin filaments
space b/w 2 cells forming a synapse synaptic cleft
neurotransmitter acetylcholine
glycogen -> glucose -> 2pyruric -> ATP glucose
an organic compound formed from pyruric acids during aerobic respiration lactate
brain and spinal cord, not capable of regeneration CNS parts
all nerves outside and connecting to CNS PNS parts
nerve cells the structural and functional units of nervous system neuron
support cells neuroglia
longer extension from cell body, sends outgoing messages axon
central part of a neuron cell body
shorter extensions from cell body, receive incoming messages dendrite
time it take to repolarize refractory period
sensory neurons afferent neurons
interneurons association neuron
motor neurons efferent neuron
white liproprotein that wraps and electrically insulates axons to increase speed of impulse myelin sheath
nerve impulse that passes myelin sheath saltatory conduction
nerve impulses that passes nodes of ravier continuous conduction
na+ inside k+ inside? +inside,-outside depolarization
k+ leaves repolarization
compares intended movements with actual movements for smooth, coordinated, skilled movement-- posture and balance cerebellum
right and left hemisphere, separated by the longitudinal fissures cerebrum
brain stem, links spinal cord with brain-- heartbeat, breathing, swallowing, vomiting etc medula oblongata
about medulla--cranial nerves pons
above pons--cranial nerves mid-brain
relays sensory in and out to cerebral cortex, crude sense of touch, pressure, pain, temp thalamus
cavity such as brain ventricle fluid with cerebrum spinal fluid or hear that contains blood ventricles
CNS and PNS- muscle contraction acethylcholine
CNS- causes alertness histamine
CNS- reduce pain by inhibiting substance p endorphins
CNS and PNS- create a sense of feeling good, low levels cause Parkinson disease dopamine
rods to see in dim light and cones to see color and sharp vision retina
thin and watery constantly drained into blood and replaces aqueous humor
thick jellylike vitreous humor
what covers all of eyeball cornea sclera
anterior, transparent, a vascular cover protects pupil cornea
just behind pupil, focuses light on retina lens
spiral labyrinth for hearing cochlea
cone shaped that vibrates as sound waves hit it tympanic membrane
what is the outer external ear auricle
connects middle ear and the throat to equalize air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane Eustachian tube
what are the auditory ossicles malleus, incus, stapes
sensation of spinning or movement while holding still vertigo
middle ear infection otitis media
elevated intraocular pressure sue to excess aqueous humor glaucoma
clouding of lens cataract
disorders- pressure on the medial nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel in writs carpal tunnel
disorders- degenerative autoimmune disease-immune system attacks joint tissue, infammation of rheumatoid arthritis
disorders- degenerative disorientation of articular cartilage and spur formation usally 60+ osteoarthritis
progressive disorder of the CNS, degeneration of the dopamine producing neurons in the midbrain Parkinsons
overactive osteoclasts remove calcium from bone. spaces and canals appear, weaking bones osteoporosis
lateral bend of the vertebral column scoliosis
to maintain a stable internal environment is homeostasis
what are diff homeostasis mechanisms in the body temp, blood sugar, blood pressure, fluid level, ion levels, o2 levels
Created by: katercheers



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