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USGov court cases

Court Cases

QuestionAnswer
Marbury v. Madison (1803) judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) national supremacy, elastic clause
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) commerce clause
Barron v. Baltimore (1833) states can take property without compensating owner
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) separate but equal constitutional
Schenck v. US (1919) clear and present danger
Gitlow v. New York (1925) states cannot deny free speech: first application of BoR to states
Near v. Minnesota (1931) freedom of press from prior restraint
Korematsu v. US (1944) internment of Japanese acceptable to protect nation
Brown v. Board (1st and 2nd) 1954-1955 segregation unconstitutional
Mapp v. Ohio (1961) exclusionary rule
Engel v. Vitale (1962) school sponsored (or state sponsored) prayer unconstitutional
Baker v. Carr (1962) one man, one vote
Abington School District v. Schempp (1963) no school sponsored devotional bible reading in public schools
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) right to counsel
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) right to zone of privacy established through married couples
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) protection against self-incrimination
Tinker v. DesMoines (1969) symbolic speech in school
NY Times v. US (1971) no prior restraint unless immediate imperiling of American forces
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) Lemon test: secular legislative purpose, neither promote nor inhibit religion, no excessive entanglement
Miller v. California (1972) defined obscenity
Roe v. Wade (1973) right to abortion during first trimester
US v. Nixon (1974) executive privilege except in cases of criminal trial
Buckley v. Valeo (1976) symbolic freedom of speech to personal campaign contributions
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) racial quotas unconstitutional but can be ONE (complex) factor in admissions
New Jersey v. TLO (1985) schools can search students with reasonable suspicion
Bethel v. Frasier (1986) student speech can be limited in a school environment
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988) prior restraint exists in a school environment
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) states can put regulations on abortion
Texas v. Johnson (1989) symbolic freedom of speech in flag burning
Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith (1990) states can restrain religious practice
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) states can regulate abortion but not with undue burden
Shaw v. Reno (1993) no racial gerrymandering (race not predominant factor in creating districts)
U.S. v. Lopez (1995) Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce
Reno v. ACLU (1997) regulating indecent speech on internet unconstitutional
Clinton v. NY (1998) line-item veto unconstitutional violation of separation of powers
Bush v. Gore (2000) halted election recount based on equal protection clause
Zelman v. Simmons – Harris (2002) scholarship program that indirectly funds religious institutions constitutional
Ashcroft v. ACLU (2002) struck down ban on internet child pornography
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) struck down use of "bonus points" for race in undergrad admissions
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) allowed use of race as general factor in admissions
Lawrence v. Texas (2003) using right to privacy to strike down Texas sodomy law (instead of equal protection)
Kelo v. New London (2005) eminent domain to force sale of private property for private economic development if it benefits the public
Gonzales v. Oregon (2006) death with dignity (assisted suicide) upheld as constitutional use of state power (Attorney General cannot regulate states)
Gonzales v. Carhart (2007) upheld Partial Birth Abortion Act of 2003
DC v. Heller (2008) struck down a WA DC ordinance that banned handguns
Created by: keylime314