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Endocrine Not Parts

endocrine diseases and disorders

QuestionAnswer
acidosis condition caused by abnormal build up of acid products of metabolism (seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus)
Addison disease chronic syndrome caused by a deficiency in hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex. (signs and symp: weakness, darkening of the skin,loss of appetite, depression, and emotional problems.)
cretinism (Aka. congenital hypothyroidism) condition caused by congenital absence or atrophy of thyroid gland. (signs: puffy features, mental deficiency, large tongue, and dwarfism)
Cushing syndrome syndrome caused by excessive production of cortisol by adrenal cortices. (signs and symp: abnormally pigmented skin, "moon face", pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, "buffalo hump", wasting away of muscle, and hypertension.)
diabetes insipidus(DI) caused by decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by posterior lobe of pituitary gland. (signs and symp: excessive thirst (polydipsia), large amounts of urine (polyuria), and sodium excreted from body.
diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic disease charac. by elevated blood sugar involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by under-activity of the islets of Langerhans. (DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy)
gigantism happens before puberty, caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone by pituitary gland
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland (thyromegaly)
Graves disease disorder of thyroid gland caused by hyperthyroidism, goiter, and abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmos)
ketosis condition resultin from uncontrolled DM, body has abnormal concentration of ketone bodies from excessive fat metabolism
metabolic syndrome (Aka. syndrome X and insulin resistance syndrome) group of S&S: insulin resistance, obesity charac. by excessive fat around waist and abdomen, hypertension, hyperglycemia, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of HDL. Risk: type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or stroke.
myxedema condition from deficiency in thyroid hormone thyroxine; sever form of hypothyroidism in adult. S: puffiness of face and hands, coarse and thick skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech, and anemia.
pheochromocytoma tumor of adrenal medulla (usually benign) charac. hypertension, headaches, palpitations, diaphoresis, chest pain, and abdominal pain. Can be removed surgically, can be fatal if untreated.
tetany condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as result of hypocalcemia by deficiency of the parathyroid hormone.
thyrotoxicosis condition caused by excessive thyroid hormones
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) nuclear med scan that measures thyroid function. (radioactive meds given to patient, and uptake into thyroid gland is measured)
thyroid scan nuclear medicine test shows size, shape, and function of thyroid gland. used to detect tumors and nodules.
fasting blood sugar (FBS) blood sugar test after patient fasts for 8-10 hrs, elevation may indicate diabetes mellitus.
glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) blood sugar test to monitor diabetic treatment (glycosylated hemoglobing (Hb coated with sugar)) over past three months (life span of red blood cell 120dys
thyroid-stimulating hormone level (TSH) blood test to measure amount of TSH in blood- diagnosis hypothyroidism and monitor patients on thyroid replacement therapy.
thyroxine level (T4) blood study that gives measurement of amount of thyroxine in blood. Above norm=hyperthyroidism, below=hypothyroidism.
exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
hormone chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland, carried by blood to a target tissue
metabolism sum total of all chemical processes that take place in a living organism
isthmus narrow strip of tissue connecting two larger parts of the body
Created by: 51600302