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Review for Prof. Schaeffer's Final

The body is divided into how many systems? 11 Systems
Integumentary System - major organs and functions Skin, Hair, Sweat Glands, Nails. Protects against environmental changes, helps regulate body temp, provides sensory information.
Skeletal System - major organs and functions Bones, Cartilages, Associated Ligaments, & Bone Marrow. Provides support and protection, stores calcium & other minerals, forms blood cells.
Muscular System - major organs and functions Skeletal muscles & Associated tendons. Provides movement, provides protection & support, generates heat that maintains body temp.
Nervous System - major organs and functions Brain, Spinal Cord, Peripheral Nerves, & Sense Organs. Directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions.
Endocrine System - major organs and functions Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Pancreas, Adrenal glands, & Gonads. Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, Controls structural and functional changes during development, & directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems.
Cardiovascular System - major organs and functions Heart, Blood, & Blood vessels. Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
Lymphatic System - major organs and functions Spleen, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, & Tonsils. Defends against infection and disease, & returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream.
Respiratory System - major organs and functions Nasal cavities, Sinuses, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs, & Alveoli. Delivers air to alveoli, provides oxygen to bloodstream, removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream, & produces sounds for communication.
Digestive System - major organs and functions Teeth, Tongue, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Liver, Gallbladder, & Pancreas. Processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients, & stores energy reserves.
Urinary System - major organs and functions Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, & Urethra. Excretes waste products from the blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, & regulates blood ion concentrations and pH.
Male Reproductive System - major organs and functions Testes, Epididymis, Ductus deferens, Seminal vesicles, Prostate glands, Penis, & Scrotum. Procudes male sex cells (sperm) and hormones.
Female Reproductive System - major organs and functions Ovaries, Uterine tubes, Uterus, Vagina, Labia, Clitoris, & Mammary glands. Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones, supports developing embryo from conception to delivery, & provides milk to nourish newborn infant.
What is negative feedback? The body's corrective mechanism involving an action that directly opposes a variation from normal limits. Brings body back to homeostasis. Ex.thermostat, insulin, CO2.
What is positive feedback? A stimulus that produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions. Moves body away from homeostasis. Ex. Blood clotting & uterine contractions.
Name the body cavities. Dorsal Body Cavity - cranial cavity & vertebral cavity. Ventral Body Cavity - abdominopelvic cavity - abdominal cavity & pelvic cavity.
What is the difference between visceral and parietal serosa? Visceral serosa covers the internal organs. Parietal serosa lines internal body walls.
What are the four main types of tissue? Epithelium, Connective, Muscular, & Nervous.
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue Covers body surface, lines hollow things, & forms glands. Avascular but innervated. Rapidly replaces lost cells. Provides sensation, physical protection, and controls permeability.
Classes of Epithelia Simple - single layer of cells. Stratified - multiple layers of cells. Squamous - flat shaped. Cuboidal - square shaped. Columnar - rectangular shaped.
Simple Squamous Epithelia Highly adapted for diffusion, osmosis, & filtration. Found in alveoli of lungs and the kidneys.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelia Responsible for secretion & absorption. Found in outer covering of ovaries & smaller ducts of some glands (like the thyroid).
Simple Columnar Epithelia Provides protection, secretion, & absorption. Found in the GI tract. Some have cilia, brush borders, & goblet cells.
Stratified Squamous Epithelia 2 Types: Keratinized - waterproof protection, reduces friction, & protects against bacterial infection. Ex. Epidermis. Non-keratinized - mouth, tongue, & vagina.Tra
Transitional Epithelia Permits expansion and recoil after stretching. Basal cells are cuboidal & surface cells are dome shaped. Found in the bladder.
Psuedostratified Columnar Epithelia Function in secretion & propulsion of mucus. Found in Eustachian tubes and Trachea (ciliated).
Endocrine Gland Have no ducts and produce hormones. Hormones are then secreted directly into bloodstream.
Exocrine Gland Secrete their products thru a duct onto the body surface or into a hollow organ. Ex. sweat glands, salivary glands, digestive enzymes, milk, etc.
Merocrine Secretion Produced in Golgi apparatus & are released by vesicles (exocytosis). Ex. sweat glands
Apocrine Secretion Produced in Golgi apparatus & are released by shedding cytoplasm. Ex. mammary gland
Holocrine Secretion Released by cells bursting, killing gland cells. Gland cells are replaced by stem cells. Ex. sebaceous gland
Connective Tissue Characteristics Most abundant tissue in the body. Connect epithelium to the rest of the body. Highly vascular except for cartilage & bone. Has mesenchyme (stem cell tissue) as their common tissue of origin.
Created by: Amepe777



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