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Ward- dev CN I & II

Neurulation The ECTODERM of the trilaminar embryo folds via neural folds about the neural groove. This forms the Neural tube and the neural crest cells.
Structures from Neural Tube it gives rise to entire CNS (spinal cord, brainstem, brain).
Structures from Neural Crest cells Migrate all over body to become: 1.Melanocytes. 2.Oligodendrocytes (CNS) and Schwann cells (PNS). 3.Nerve satellite cells. 4.ALL GANGLIA (posterior root ganglia, parasymp ganglia, symp ganglia). 5.Bones and cartilages of face and neck.
Mesenchyme surrounding the neural tube becomes? Meninges
Alar and Basal Plates The multiplying nerve cells near the center of the neural tube as it thickens. ALAR: posterior horn (sensory). BASAL: anterior horn (motor, sends axons to myotomes).
Origin of Macroglial cells Ventricular zone of the neural tube.
Marginal zone of the neural tube forms? White matter tracts (axons) in the spinal cord.
Development of the brain and brainstem begins with what 3 primary vesicles? 1.Prosencephalon (Forebrain). 2.Mesencephalon (midbrain). 3.Rhombencephalon Hindbrain).
Cervical flexture Found between the spinal cord and Rhombencephalon region during development.
Cephalic flexture found between Rhombencephalon and mesencephalon regions during development.
5 Secondary vesicles during CNS development Prosencephalon divids into (Telencephlon and diencephalon), mesencephalon (stays the same), Rhombencephalon (divides into Metencephalon and myelencephalon)
After the formation of the 5 secondary vesicles from the primary 3 vesicles, where are the flextures 1.cervical flexture (b/w spinal cord and myelencephalon). 2.Pontine flexture (b/w myelencephalon and metencephalon). 3.Cephalic flexture (in the middle of mesencephalon)
Adult derivative of the Telencephalon WALLS: Cerebral hemispheres. CAVITIES: lateral ventricles (seperated by the septum pellucidum).
Adult derivative of the Diencephalon WALLS: thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland. CAVITIES: third ventricle
Adult derivative of the Mesencephalon WALLS: Midbrain. CAVITIES: Aqueduct
Adult derivative of the Metecephalon WALLS: Pons and Cerebellum. CAVITIES: 4th ventricle
Adult derivative of the Myelencephalon WALLS: Medulla. CAVITIES: 4th ventricle
Which secondary vesicle grows the most Telencephalon. Neurons of the cerebral cortex enlarge as they proliferate. Grows from the inside out.
Lobes formed from the Telencephalon 1.Frontal. 2.Insular (gets overgrown by the frontal lobe). 3.Parietal. 4.Temporal. 5.Occipital.
Formation of CN I extension of the frontal lobe forming the olfactory tract. From the superior nasal cavity: axons pass through the cribriform plate to synapse with neurons in the olfactory bulb.
retina of the eye is a direct extension of what? Diencephalon which makes it part of the CNS.
formation of the lens derived from an invagination of epidermal tissue as the retinal cups around the epidermal layer
Pathways of R and L optic N Retina sends axons thru R and L optic N. they reach the optic chiasm where axons swap and head towards the thalamic nuclei. From the thalamus they move to the occipital lobe
Flow of CSF thru ventricles Lateral > 3rd > cerebral aqueduct > 4th > subarachnoid spcae
Hydrocephalus Stenosis of the Cerebral aqueduct (mesencephalon) will cause a back up of CSF in the 3rd and lateral ventricles.
Holoprosencephaly Failure of cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles to seperate. **Forms a semilobar or alobar cerebral cortex and will lead to facial development defects
Failure of the Cranial Neuropore to close on time disrupts occipital bone formation and causes herniation
Neuropore defects: Posterior fontanelle of cranium 1.Meningocele (protruding dura and subarachnoid space). 2.Meningohyrdocephalocele (protrusion of occipital lobe)
Neuropore defects: Foramen Magnum 1.Meningoencephalocele (protrusion of cerebellum)
Created by: WeeG