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A&P 2 - E5 - P3

A&P 2 - Exam 5 - Part 3 - Female Reproductive

The function of the female reproductive system is to ensure continuity of the ________. genetic code
The female reproductive system produces eggs, or female _______, which each may unite with a male gamete to form the first cell of an offspring. gametes
The female reproductive system can provide ______ and _______ to the offspring. nutrition, protection
Reproductive organs are classified as either _______ or _______. essential, accessory
In females, gonads are the paired _______. ovaries
Gametes are ______ produced by the ovaries. ova
The ovaries are _______ genitals. internal
Internal accessory organs include _______ tubes, the _______, and the _______ as well as ducts that extend from the ovaries to the exterior. uterine, uterus, vagina
External accessory organs include the ________. vulva
The _______ is the skin-covered region between the vaginal orifice and the rectum. perineum
The ______ may be torn during childbirth. perineum
The ovaries are _______ glands located on each side of the ________, below and behind the uterine tubes. nodular, uterus
An ________ pregnancy is the development of the fetus in a place other than the uterus. ectopic
The surface of the ovaries is covered by _______. germinal epithelium
Ovarian ________ contain the developing female sex cells. follicles
An ovum is an _______ released from the ovary. oocyte
Ovaries produce ______ which are the female gametes. ova
________ is the process that results in formation of a mature egg. oogenesis
The ovaries are endocrine organs that secrete the female sex hormones _____ and ______. estrogens, progesterone
The uterus is pear shaped and has two main parts, the ______ and the _______. cervix, body
The wall of the uterus is composed of three layers, the _______, the ________, and the outer incomplete layer of ________. inner endometrium, middle myometrium, parietal peritoneum
The cavities of the uterus are _______ because of the thickness of the _________. small, uterine wall
The blood to the uterus is supplied by _______ arteries. uterine
The uterus is located in the _______ cavity between the urinary bladder and the rectum. pelvic
The ________ of the uterus is altered by age, pregnancy, and distention of related pelvic viscera. position
The uterus descends, between birth and puberty, from the lower ________ to the _________. abdomen, true pelvis
The uterus begins to decrease in size at _______. menopause
The body of the uterus lies flexed over the _______. bladder
The ________ of the uterus points downward and backward, joining the vagina at a right angle. cervix
Several _______ hold the uterus in place but allow some movement. ligaments
The uterus is part of the reproductive tract and permits _____ to ascend toward the uterine tubes. sperm
If ______ occurs, an offspring develops in the uterus. conception
The embryo is supplied with nutrients by _______ glands until the production of the _______. endometrial, placenta
The ______ is an organ that permits the exchange of materials between the mother's blood and the fetal blood but keeps the two circulations _______. placenta, separate
_________ contractions occur during labor and help push the offspring out of the mother's body. myometrial
If conception does not occur, the outer layers of ________ are shed during _______. endometrium, menstruation
Menstruation is a cyclical event that allows the ______ to renew itself. endometrium
Uterine tubes are also called _______ or _______. fallopian tubes, oviducts
Uterine tubes are attached to the _______ at its upper outer angles and extend upward and outward toward the sides of the _______. uterus, pelvis
Uterine tubes consist of ______, ______, and ______. mucous, smooth muscle, serous lining
Mucosal lining is directly continuous with the ______ lining the pelvic cavity. peritoneum
_______ is continuous with that of the vagina and uterus, which means it may become infected with organisms introduced into the vagina. tubal mucosa
Each uterine tube has three divisions: ______, ______, and ______. isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum
Uterine tubes serve as transport channels for ova and as the site of ________. fertilization
The ______ is a collapsible tube capable of distention. vagina
The vagina is composed of _______, and lined with _______ membrane arranged in ________. smooth muscle, mucous, rugae
The ______ wall of the vagina is shorter than the ______ wall because the cervix protrudes into its uppermost portion. anterior, posterior
The vagina acts as a receptacle for ________. semen
The ______ is the lower portion of the birth canal. vagina
The vagina is a transport for tissue shed during ________. menstruation
The vulva consists of the female _______ genitals. external
The ______ consists of the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, urinary meatus, vaginal orifice and greater vestibular glands. vulva
The mons pubis and labia ________ the clitoris and vestibule. protect
The ______ contains sensory receptors that send information to the sexual response area of the brain. clitoris
The breasts lie over the ________ muscles. pectoral
________ and ________ control breast development. estrogens, progesterone
Breast size is determined by the amount of _____ around glandular tissue. fat
The function of mammary glands is _________. lactation
The ________ hormones make the breasts structurally ready to produce milk. ovarian
The shedding of the _______ results in a decrease of ______ and thus stimulates _______. placenta, estrogens, prolactin
________ stimulates lactation. prolactin
Lactation can provide nutrient-rich milk to offspring for up to _______ from birth. several years
The advantages of breast milk are: nutrients, ________ from _______ present in the milk, and emotional bonding. passive immunity, antibodies
The female reproductive system has many cyclical changes that start with the beginning of _______. menses
Ovaries from birth contain ________ in _______ in which the meiotic process has been suspended. oocytes, primary follicles
At the beginning of menstruation each month, several of the oocytes resume _______. meiosis
________ will stop again just before the cell is released during _______. meiosis, ovulation
The menstrual cycle is also known as the _______ cycle. endometrial
The menstrual cycle is divided into what 4 phases? menses, postmenstrual, ovulation, premenstrual
The ______ phase of the menstrual cycle is the shedding of the endometrial lining. menses
The ______ phase of the menstrual cycle takes place from the end of menses to ovulation. postmenstrual
The postmenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle is also known as the ________ phase. preovulatory
During the postmenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, high ______ levels occur due to the developing follicle. estrogens
The ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle consists of the release of ________. ovum
The premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle is also known as the ________ phase. postovulatory
During the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle high levels of _________ occur. progesterone
______ control cyclical changes. hormones
Cyclical changes in the ovaries result from changes in the _______ secreted by the _______. gonadotropins, pituitary gland
Cyclical changes in the uterus are caused by changes in ______ and ______. estrogens, progesterone
Low levels of FSH and LH cause regression of the _______ if pregnancy does not occur. corpus luteum
Low levels of ______ and ______ cause regression of the corpus luteum if pregnancy does not occur. FSH, LH
A decrease in ______ and ______ triggers endometrial sloughing of the menstrual phase. estrogen, progesterone
Control of cyclical changes in _______ secretion is caused by positive and negative feedback mechanisms and involves estrogens, progesterone, and the hypothalamus secretion of releasing hormones. gonadotropin
Control of cyclical changes in gonadotropin secretion is caused by _________ mechanisms and involves estrogens, progesterone, and the hypothalamus secretion of releasing hormones. positive and negative feedback
Control of cyclical changes in gonadotropin secretion is caused by positive and negative feedback mechanisms and involves estrogens, progesterone, and the hypothalamus secretion of _________. releasing hormones
The ovarian cycle's primary function is to produce _____ at regular intervals. ovum
The ovarian cycle's secondary function is to regulate the ________ cycle through estrogen and progesterone. endometrial
The function of the endometrial cycle is to make the uterus suitable for implantation of a new _______. offspring
Menstrual flow begins at puberty and the menstrual cycle continues for about _______. 3 to 4 decades
The female reproductive system shares a special relationship with the ________ system because of their close proximity and because they share the ________. urinary, vulva
The female reproductive system shares a special relationship with the skeletal muscles in the _________. perineum
The female reproductive system shares a special relationship with the ________ system because breasts are actually modifications of the _______. integumentary, skin
_______ is painful menstruation. dysmenorrhea
_______ dysmenorrhea is not associated with pelvic disease. primary
_______ dysmenorrhea is sometimes caused by oversecretion of uterine prostaglandins. primary
_______ dysmenorrhea is caused by extenuating conditions such as infection, tumors, and structural anomalies. secondary
_______ is the absence of normal menstruation. amenorrhea
_______ results from hormone imbalance rather than infection of disease. dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)
What are 2 types of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? salpingitis, oophritis
_______ is uterine tube inflammation. salpingitis
_______ is an inflammation of the ovaries. oophritis
_______ is an inflammation of the vagina. vaginitis
_______ is a benign tumor of smooth muscle. myoma or fibromyoma
_______ are benign tumors of connective tissue. fibroids
_______ is the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. endometriosis
Created by: K1N1V