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A&P 2 - E5 - P2

A&P 2 - Exam 5 - Part 2 - Endocrine System Continued

QuestionAnswer
The pineal gland is a tiny, pine cone-shaped structure located on the dorsal aspect of the brain's __________. diencephalon
The pineal gland is a member of the nervous system, since it receives ______ stimuli, and also a member of the endocrine system, since it secretes _______. visual, hormones
The pineal gland supports the body's _______. biological clock
The principal pineal secretion is ________. melatonin
The thyroid gland is made up of two large ________ and a narrow connecting _______. lateral lobes, isthmus
In the ________, a thin wormlike projection of thyroid tissue which often extends upward from the isthmus. thyroid gland
The weight of the thyroid gland in an adult is approximately ________. 30g (1 ounce)
The thyroid gland is located in the neck, on the anterior and lateral surfaces of the _______, just below the ________. trachea, larynx
The thyroid gland is composed of ______. follicles
Thyroid ______ are small hollow spheres. follicles
Thyroid follicles are filled with thyroid ______ that contains ______. colloid, thyroglobulins
Thyroid hormone is actually what two different hormones? tetraiodothyronine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3)
Tetraiodothyronine (T4) is also known as _______. thyroxine
Tetraiodothyronine (T4) contains 4 _______ atoms. iodine
Tetraiodothyronine (T4) is approximately ___ times more abundant than Triiodothyronine (T3). 20
The major importance of tetraiodothyronine (T4) is as a precursor to ______. triiodothyronine (T3)
Triiodothyronine (T3) contains ___ iodine atoms. 3
_______ is considered to be the principal thyroid hormone. triiodothyronine (T3)
_______ binds efficiently to nuclear receptors in target cells. triiodothyronine (T3)
The _______ stores considerable amounts of a preliminary form of its hormones prior to secreting them. thyroid gland
Before being stored in the colloid of follicles, T3 and T4 are attached to _______ molecules, forming _______ complexes. globulin, thyroglobin
On release, T3 and T4 detach from globulin and enter the _________. bloodstream
Once in the blood, T3 and T4 attach to _______ and travel as a hormone-globulin complex. plasma globulins
_______ and, to a lesser extent, ______ detach from plasma globulin as they near the target cells. T3, T4
_______ helps regulate the metabolic rate of all cells, cell growth, and tissue differentiation; it is said to have a "general" target. thyroid hormone
________ is produced by the thyroid gland in the parafollicular cells. calcitonin
Calcitonin is produced by the thyroid gland in the ______ cells. parafollicular
Calcitonin influences the processing of calcium by bone cells by _______ blood calcium levels and promoting conservation of _______. decreasing, hard bone matrix
_______ acts as antagonist to calcitonin to maintain calcium homeostasis. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
There are four or five parathyroid glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid's _______. lateral lobes
________ are tiny, rounded bodies within thyroid tissue formed by compact, irregular rows of cells. parathyroid glands
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) acts on ______, ______ and ______ cells. bone, kidney, intestinal
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes more bone to be dissolved, yielding ______ and ______, which enters the bloodstream. calcium, phosphate
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes _______ to be secreted by the _______ cells into the urine to be excreted. phosphate, kidney
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes increased intestinal absorption of _______ by activating _______. calcium, vitamin D
The _______ are located on top of the kidneys, fitting like caps. adrenal glands
What 2 portions are the adrenal glands made up of? adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla
The adrenal cortex is composed of _______ tissue. endocrine
The adrenal medulla is composed of _______ tissue. neurosecretory
In the adrenal cortex, all cortical hormones are _______ and are known as _______. steroids, corticosteroids
The adrenal cortex is composed of what three distinct layers of secreting cells? zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis
The _______ is the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex, directly under the outer connective tissue capsule of the adrenal gland. zona glomerulosa
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex secretes ________. mineralocorticoids
The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex is the middle layer which secretes ________. glucocorticoids
The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex secretes small amounts of ________ and _________. glucocorticoids, gonadocorticoids
Mineralocorticoids have an important role in the regulatory process of ______ in the body. sodium
An example of a mineralocorticoid is _________. aldosterone
Aldosterone is the only physiologically important _______ in the human body. mineralocorticoid
The primary function of _______ is the maintenance of sodium homeostasis in the blood by increasing sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. aldosterone
The primary function of aldosterone is the maintenance of _______ homeostasis in the blood by increasing _______ reabsorption in the kidneys. sodium, sodium
Aldosterone also increases _______ and promotes the loss of _______ and _______ ions. water retention, potassium, hydrogen
Aldosterone secretion is controlled by the ________ mechanism and by blood ________ concentration. renin-angiotensin, potassium
The main glucocorticoids secreted by the zona fasciculate are ______, ______, and ______. cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone
Of the main glucocorticoids secreted by the zona fasciculate, ______ the only one secreted in significant quantities. cortisol
Glucocorticoids affect ______ in the body. every cell
Glucocorticoids are ______, ______, and ______. protein-mobilizing, gluconeogenic, hyperglycemic
Glucocorticoids tend to cause a shift from ______ catabolism to ______ catabolism as an energy source. carbohydrate, lipid
Glucocorticoids are essential for maintaining normal ______ by aiding norepinephrine and epinephrine to have their full effect, causing ______. blood pressure, vasoconstriction
Glucocorticoids are essential for maintaining normal blood pressure by aiding ______ and ______ to have their full effect, causing vasoconstriction. norepinephrine, epinephrine
A high blood concentration of glucocorticoids causes marked ______ of lymphatic tissues. atrophy
A high blood concentration of glucocorticoids causes marked atrophy of ______ tissues. lymphatic
Glucocorticoids act with _______ to bring about normal recovery from injury produced by inflammatory agents. epinephrine
Glucocorticoids act with epinephrine to bring about normal recovery from injury produced by _______ agents. inflammatory
Glucocorticoid secretion increases in response to ______. stress
Except during stress response, the secretion of glucocorticoids is mainly controlled by a negative feedback mechanism involving ________ from the ________. ACTH, adenohypophysis
Except during stress response, the secretion of glucocorticoids is mainly controlled by a _______ mechanism involving ACTH from the adenohypophysis. negative feedback
________ are sex hormones such as androgens that are released from the adrenal cortex. gonadocorticoids
Gonadocorticoids are sex hormones such as _______ that are released from the adrenal cortex. androgens
Neurosecretory tissue is tissue composed of ______ specialized to secrete their products into the _______. neurons, blood
_______ tissue is tissue composed of neurons specialized to secrete their products into the blood. neurosecretory
The adrenal medulla secretes what two important hormones? epinephrine, norepinephrine
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are part of the coclass of nonsteroid hormones called ________. catecholamines
Epinephrine and norepinephrine bind to the receptors of ________ to prolong and enhance the effects of sympathetic stimulation by the ______. sympathetic effectors, ANS
The pancreas is composed of ______ and ______ tissues. endocrine, exocrine
Pancreatic islets are also known as islets of ______. langerhans
Pancreatic islets are the ______ portion of the pancreas. endocrine
Acini are the ______ portion of the pancreas. exocrine
Acini cells of the pancreas secrete a serous fluid containing ______ into ducts draining into the small intestine. digestive enzymes
Each pancreatic islet contains ______ primary types of endocrine glands joined by ______. 4, gap junctions
What are the 4 primary types of endocrine glands of pancreatic islets? alpha cells (A cells), beta cells (B cells), delta cells (D cells), pancreatic polypeptide cells (F or PP cells)
Alpha cells (A cells) secrete ______. glucagon
Beta cells (B cells) secrete ______ and ______. insulin, amylin
_______ account for up to 75% of all pancreatic islet cells. beta cells (B cells)
Beta cells (B cells) account for up to _____ of all pancreatic islet cells. 75%
In the healthy human body ______ selectively inhibits insulin stimulated glucose utilization and glycogen deposition in muscle. amylin
In the healthy human body amylin selectively inhibits ______ and glycogen deposition in muscle. insulin stimulated glucose utilization
In the healthy human body amylin selectively inhibits insulin stimulated glucose utilization and ________ in muscle. glycogen deposition
In the healthy human body, amylin does not affect _______ metabolism. adipocyte glucose
In disease, _______ is the peptide subunit of amyloid found in pancreatic islets of type 2 diabetic patients and in insulinomas (B cell tumors). amylin
In disease, amylin is the peptide subunit of amyloid found in pancreatic islets of _______ patients and in _______ (B cell tumors). type 2 diabetic, insulinomas
Delta cells (D cells) secrete ______. somatostatin
Pancreatic polypeptide cells (F or PP cells) secrete _______. pancreatic polypeptides
Pancreatic hormones work as a team to maintain homeostasis of _______. food molecules
________ is produced by alpha cells. glucagon
________ tends to increase blood glucose levels. glucagon
________ is produced by beta cells. insulin
Insulin lowers blood concentration of ______, ______, and ______ and promotes their metabolism by tissue cells. glucose, amino acids, amino acids
Somatostatin's primary role is regulating the other endocrine cells of the ______. pancreatic islets
Pancreatic polypeptide influences the ______ and ______ of food molecules to some degree. digestion, distribution
______ are paired organs within the scrotum in the male. testes
Testes are composed of ______ tubules and a scattering of _______ cells. seminiferous, interstitial
Testosterone is produced by the ______ cells of the testes and is responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. interstitial
Testosterone secretion is mainly regulated by ______ levels in the blood. gonadotropin
______ are the primary sex organs in the female. ovaries
In females, ______ are a set of paired glands in the pelvis that produce several types of sex hormones. ovaries
Estrogens are ______ hormones secreted by _______ that promote the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. steroid, ovarian follicles
_______ are steroid hormones secreted by ovarian follicles that promote the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. estrogens
Progesterone is secreted by ______. corpus luteum
________ maintains the lining of the uterus necessary for successful pregnancy. progesterone
Ovarian hormone secretion depends on the changing levels of ______ and ______ from the adenohypophysis. FSH, LH
The placenta is a tissue that forms on the lining of the uterus as a connection between the ______ systems of the mother and developing child. circulatory
The placenta serves as a temporary endocrine gland that produces _______. human chorionic gonadotropin
The ______ is a gland located in the mediastinum just beneath the sternum. thymus
The thymus is ______ in children, begins to ______ at puberty, and, by old age, the gland is a vestige of fat and fibrous tissue. large, atrophy
The thymus is considered to be primarily a ______ organ, but the hormone _______ has been isolated from thymus tissue. lymphatic, thymosin
Thymosin stimulates the development of _______. cells
The _______ of the GI tract contains cells that produce both endocrine and exocrine secretions. mucous lining
GI hormones such as ______, ______, and _______ play regulatory roles in coordinating the secretory and motor activities involved in the digestive process. gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK)
The heart has a secondary _______ role. endocrine
Hormone producing cells of the heart produce _______. atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
The primary effect of _______ is to oppose increases in blood volume or blood pressure. atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) acts as an antagonist to ______ and _______. ADH, aldosterone
_______ acts as an antagonist to ADH and aldosterone. atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
Endocrine regulation begins in the _______. womb
Many active hormones are active from ______. birth
There is evidence that a hormonal signal from fetus to mother signals the onset of ______. labor
Hormones related to _______ begin at puberty. reproduction
Nearly every process in the human organism is kept in balance by the intricate interaction of different nervous and endocrine ________. regulatory chemicals
The endocrine system operates with the _______ system to finely adjust the many processes they regulate. nervous
The _______ system adjusts nutrient supply. neuroendocrine
Calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D balance ______ ion use. calcium
_______, _______, and _______ balance calcium ion use. calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D
Hypersecretion causes ______ hormone levels. high
Abnormal proliferation of endocrine cells, autoimmunity, and feedback mechanism failure can cause ______. hypersecretion
Hyposecretion causes ______ hormone levels. low
Endocrine tumors, abnormal feedback loop function, immune function abnormality, and target cell insensitivity to tropic hormones can cause ______. hyposecretion
Created by: K1N1V