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Rise of Europe Final

Sorry I never contributed I hope this helps

Ralph Glaber Monk and Chronicer of Cluny, He Took down old buildings like Basilicas and Carolingian Churches
Basilica Late Roman Church shaped like cross
Transept “Arms” of Cross in Basilica (North and South)
Nave Main Area “Body” of Cross in Basilica
Apse The curve in top of Basilica, normally where alter is found
Romanesque Prevalent church style in 900-1200 in Europe, Characteristics- Stone roofs, Barrel Vaulting, Thick Walls, Heavy attached Buttresses, Few Windows, Darkened Interiors, Roman Arches
Heavy Buttress Stone Roofs are too heavy so we add buttresses
Barrel Vaulting Arches that meet in Curve
Radiating Chapel Elaboration of Romanesque Apse (c1000-1500). Built to accommodate pilgrims who came to see relics.
Ambulatory Relating to or adapted for walking. Built in Romanesque Churches around nave and continued through apse.
Gislibertus A French Romanesque Sculptor who decorated Cathedral doorways. Most famous for his works "Last Judgment" and “Eve”.
Didactic Art Art whose intention was to present a profound lesson, not merely to entertain. Examples- Last Judgement, Christ in Majesty
The Last Judgment Gislibertus’s didactic work above a doorway at Autun Cathedral. It presents Matthew as man with wings in middle, Mark as a griffin, Luke as an ox and John as an eagle because he’s far sighted.
Christ in Majesty Western Christian image of Christ seated on a throne as ruler of the world. Seen in many murals and sculptures, Christ in center on throne surrounding by holy beings.
Master of Taull Considered on of the greatest mural painters of the 12th century. His most famous work was a Christ in Majesty in San Clemente de Taull.
Suger of St. Denis (Su Jay) 1081-1151, was one of the last Frankish abbot-statesmen, historian and first patron of Gothic architecture. He ruled over France while Louis was on Crusade and started a building program.
Anagogy Theory of symbols wherein earthly sights lift our thoughts to the divine. Refers to entities that transport a person beyond higher consciousness.
Gothic (French Style) Creates a place between heaven and earth. Style which main features are Ribbed/high vaulting, pointing arches, rose windows, flying buttresses, thin wall, high ceilings. Examples-Notre Dame 112ft, St. Chapelle, Chartes-120ft, Amiens-138ft, Beauvais.
Pointed Arch Invention of the Gothic era, that allowed ceilings to be higher and walls to thinner because the arch supported the roof’s weight rather than the wall.
Flying Buttress Characteristic of Gothic architecture that allowed for walls to higher and walls to be thinner.
Ribbed Vaulting Produced by the intersection of two or three barrel vaults and are edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns.
Rose Window Circular window found in churches of the Gothic architecture style.
Labyrinth Gothic feature form of cathedral art that is a figurative and sometimes literal pilgrimage to be performed on knees. Circle shape, start on outside and move towards middle.
Chevalier Is a class of membership in a French or Belgian Oder of Chivalry or order of merit. A man who pertained to a certain knightly medieval moral, religious and social code.
Chivalry A medieval knightly system with a moral religious and social code.
Peace of God One of the two reasons chivalry arose. In 989 it was established as the churches way of restraining violence. said three things 1. Knights cannot hurt non combatants. 2 No one can hurt a Clergy member. 3. One Cannot violate church property.
Troubadour A type of composer and performer of lyrical poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100-1350). Poetry mainly dealt with themes of chivalry and courtly love.
Troubadour Lyrics Lyrics that were mostly metaphysical ,intellectual and formulaic. Many were humorous or vulgar stories that dealt with chivalry and courtly love. Written in the vernacular with the theme of unrequited love.
vernacular Local dialects of latin that eventually morphed into their own language. Spoken by the ordinary person.
Romance Was trending in European literature as a fantastic fiction. Man must go out and defeat odds to get woman.
Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122-1204. Married King Louis VI of France, goes on Second Crusade. Gives birth to Marie de Champagne. Divorced him and Married Henry 11, Duke of the Normans and becomes queen of england. Idea of Courtly love between her and two kings.
Marie de Champagne (1145-1198) Daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Patron of literature in Troyes.
Court of Champagne The practice of courtly love was developed in the castle life of four regions: Aquitaine, Provence, Champagne and Burgundy, from around the time of the First Crusade (1099). Eleanor of Aquitaine brought ideals of courtly love from Aquitaine first to the c
"Matter of Rome" The literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar.
"Matter of Britain" Is a name given collectively to the body of literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain and its legendary kings, particularly King Arthur. Dealt with love.
King Arthur A legendary British leader of the late 5th and early 6th centuries, who, according to Medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the early 6th century. Was the subject of many troubadour songs of deeds and love.
Chretien de Troyes (Christian of Troyes) French Poet and trouvere (writer inspired by Troubadour) who writes about King Arthur and Britain. Ex: Knight and the Cart and Perceval
The Knight and the Cart Written by Chretien de Troyes, about the Lancelot’s rescue of queen Guinevere who has been abducted by Melegant. Lancelot Battles duties as a warrior and a lover.
Perceval Story of man who wants to become a knight. Goes to King arthurs Court, kills a knight that was troubling the king and goes on an adventure. Finds a beautiful woman holding grail.
Andreas Capellanus Author that wrote De Amore (about love), known as The Art of Courtly Love.
Dante Aligheri (1265-1321) Author that studied in municipal schools until Beatrice (his love) died. Exiled from Florence in 1302 for being a leading White Guelf. Wrote The Divine Comedy
Guido Cavalcanti Mentor to Dante and wrote in a “sweet new style” but not with the same intensity as Dante. Black Guelf that died in Exile.
"Sweet New Style" “Dolce Stil Novo” name given to the most important literary movement of the 13th century in Italy. Main theme is love. Used for the first time by Dante.
Guibellines (Ghibellines) Small groups that supported the Holy Roman Emperor. Mostly defeated by the time of Dante.
Guelfs Political faction in Florence in the 1300’s that wanted power. Was split up into two sections.
Black Guelfs Wanted Papal power to be strong. Are exiled by the opposite color.
White Guelfs Resister the Papacy, wanted to remain more or less independent. Exiled the opposite color.
La Vita Nuova 1295, was Dante’s long love letter about Beatrice that details his lifelong adoration, how it taught him about love, Beatrice’s death and his thoughts since.
Beatrice Dante’s eternal crush. Appears in Vita Nuova and is in the Divine Comedy.
Virgil Dante’s favorite pagan poet and writer of the Aeneid. (story about descent into hell) Dante’s guide through the underworld. Achieved the highest level of goodness possible to a pagan.
Acheron Forms the border of hell in Inferno, connected to all of the other bodies of water. Lukewarm sit along the banks.
Charon Guy who ferries people into hell that charges gold.
Limbo Place in the underworld for those who are not Christians but were still relatively guiltless. Ex: Great Philosophers, unbaptized babies, Virtuous Pagans
"Virtuous Pagans" Addressed the problem of pagans who were never evangelized and consequently during their lifetime had no opportunity to recognize Christ, but nevertheless led virtuous lives, so that it seemed objectionable to consider them damned. Ex: Socrates, Cicero
Francesco and Paolo Fransesca thought she was marrying Giovanni. Led by Giovanni’s dad she fell in love and married his brother Paolo before she knew it wasnt him. They were killed by Giovanni. Shown in Dante’s Inferno Canto V.
Contrapasso Punishment of Souls in Dante’s Inferno in a way that resmebled or contrasted the sin itself.
Locus Amoenus Latin for “Place of Safety and Comfort” Compared to Eden and has three basic elements- Trees, Grass and Water
Enumeration (as epic technique) Mentioning one by one, Dante used it to list the seven kings of Rome.
Mimetic Reading Representation or immitation of the real world in literature.
Sins of Incontinence Circle 2 - Lustful Circle 3 - Gluttonous Circle 4 - Immoderate Circle 5 - Wrathful (Slothful)
Sins of Malice Circle 6 - Heretics Circle 7 - Violent (against self, neighbor, God) Circle 8 - Fraudulent Circle 9 - Treacherous To Family, country, guests, lords
Ptolemaic Universe Greekastronomer Ptolemy’s model for the universe that had the Earth at the center, everything revolving around it. Used in Dante's Inferno, the outest parts is the heavens which means the center of the earth is the furthest from God
The Black Death Devastating Pandemic, killed 30-60 percent of Europe’s population. Took 150 years for Europe’s population to recover.
The Avignon Papacy Period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon, in modern-day France. Started with Pope Clement V.
Flagellation Flogging for religious discipline. Pious act of Devito Moderna.
Devotio Moderna 14th Century Religious movement that focused on 1. Flagellation. 2. Empahsis on Suffering Christ. 3 Crucifix (taking up cross and denying oneself)
Philology Study of structure, historical development and relationships of languages.
Studia Humanitatis Today known as the humanities: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy.
Petrarch (1304-1374) Father of Humanism. Poet whose admired sonnets became the model for lyrical poetry. Also known for being the first to develop the concept of the Dark Ages. Loved Laura.
Laura Object of Petrarch’s affection and wife of Petrarch’s friend.
Boccaccio Was an Italian author and poet, a friend, student, and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist and the author of a number of notable works including the Decameron, On Famous Women, and his poetry in the Italian vernacular.
Decameron The Decameron, also called Prince Galehaut, is a 14th-century medieval allegory by Giovanni Boccaccio, told as a frame story encompassing 100 tales by ten young people.
Marsilio Ficino 1492-"This century, like a golden age, has restored to light the liberal arts, which were almost extinct: grammar, poetry, rhetoric, painting, sculpture, architecture, music... this century appears to have perfected astrology."
Hermeticism set of philosophical and religious beliefs based on the writings falsely attributed to Hermes Trismegistus. These beliefs heavily influenced the Western Esoteric Tradition and were considered very important during the Renaissance and Reformation.
Pico della Mirandola Wrote 900 Thesis on Religion, Oration on Dignity of man
"Oration on the Dignity of Man" Key Text of Renaissance Humanism, Spoke of man’s great potential, freewill, and ability to rise.
Clerestory The walls in a Church that rise above the rooflines of the lower aisles and are pierced with windows. Brought outside light, fresh air into the Church.
Chanson de Geste Old French for “song of heroic deeds”. Are the epic poems that appear at the dawn of french literature.
Courtly Love a Medieval European conception of nobly and chivalrously expressing love and admiration. Generally, it was secret and between members of the nobility.
Courtly Love This practice was developed in the castle life of four regions: Aquitaine, Provence, Champagne and ducal Burgundy, from around the time of the First Crusade (1099).
Eleanor of Aquitaine Brought ideals of courtly love from Aquitaine first to the court of France, then to England, where she was queen to two kings.
Courtly Love Found its expression in the lyric poems written by troubadours, such as William IX, Duke of Aquitaine (1071–1126), one of the first troubadour poets.
Lancelot Portrays the ideal behaviors of courtly love. His actions are subordinate to his relationship and indeed, his behaviors are forced more by his affair than by more conventional social norms of the time.
Cart Was a place for criminals in Europe in the High middle ages and it was appropriate that Lancelot jumped in it because he was having an affair with the Queen.
Holy Grail sacred object figuring in literature and certain Christian traditions, most often identified with the dish, plate, or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper and said to possess miraculous powers.
Renaissance Humanism Encouraged people to be able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity. Thus, they would be capable of better engaging the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. Study of Studia Humanitatis.
Marsilio Ficino He translated the Platonic Corpus Theologica Platonica - this work attempted to reconcile plato's theology with orthodox Christianity
Created by: woottont