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Nasal, palate, oral

QuestionAnswer
Hard Palate Vaulted, mostly filled with the tongue when its at rest. Formed by the palatine processs of the maxillary bone and the horizontal process of the palatine bone. Anterior 2/3 of palate
Soft Palate Moveable, posterior 1/3 of the palate. connected to the hard palate by the palatine aponeurosis. Posterior aspect is muscular and includes the unvula. Connected to the tongue via palatoglossus (CN X). Connected to pharynx via palatopharyngeus (CN X)
Roll of soft palate in swallowing Step 1: Tensor Veli palatini (CN V3) tenses the soft palate so the tongue can force the bollus of food towards the back of the throught. Step 2: Levator veli palatini (CN X) elevates the soft palate sup/post to prevent food from entering the nose
Greater Palatine A Branch off the maxillary A->Descending palatine A. Passes through the greater palatine foramen, and runs anteromedially. It then ascends to supply the nose and contributes to Kiesselbach's plexus
Important Palatine Anastomoses The lesser Palatine Artery (off the descending palatine-->Maxillary A) anastomoses with the Ascending palatine A (from the facial A).
Greater Palatine N supplies the gingivae, mucous membrane, and glands of the hard palate.
Tensor Veli palatini O:Scaphoid fossa of medeial pterygoid plate, Eustacian tube cartilage. I:Palatine Aponeurosis. I:CN V3 and otic ganglia. A:Tenses the soft palate, opens the eustacian tubes during yawning and swallowing.
Levator Veli palatini O:Cartilage of the eustacian tube, petrous part of temporal bone. I:Palatine aponeurosis. I:CN X. A:Elevates soft palate during swallowing and yawning.
Intrensic muscles of the tongue 1.Sup/Inf longitudinal: retract protruded tongue and make it soft. 2.Transverse M. 3.Vertical M. **2&3 act together to make tongue long and narrow. **all 3 innvervated by CN XII
Lingual A 2nd anterior branch of ECA (just inferior to Facial A.). Passes deep to hyoglossus muscle and divides into dorsal and deep lingual arteries to supply the tongue
Genioglossus M Fan-shaped muscle making up the bulk of the tonuge. Attaches onto dorsum of the tongue and it depresses the tongue centrally, protrudes the tongue, and retracts the apex unilaterally (wags the tongue). Innervated by CN XII
Hyoglossus M O:Body/greater horn of hyoid bone. I:Inferoir aspect of lateral tongue. I:CN XII. A:Depresses tongue, pulling sides inferiorly.
Styloglossus M O:Anterior styloid process. I:lateral tongue, integrating the hyoglossus. I:CN XII. A:Retrudes/elevates tongue (works with genioglossus during swallowing.
Submandibular duct 5 cm long, arises from gland between mylohyoid and moves anteriorly and opens into a sublingual papilla at the base of the frenulum. **Lingual N loops underneath.
Sublingual glands smallest and most deeply situated of all the salivary glands. Lies between the mandible and genioglossus muscle. R and L unite to form a horseshoe around the frenulum.
Vestibule of the nose the opeing into the nose where the skin extends into. Location of stiff hairs which filter out dust particles.
Nasal conchae Sup & mid are medial processes of the ethmoid bone. Inf is the largest with the most vasculature and its own bone. They curve inferomedially, hanging form the lateral walls. Warm incoming air by way of heavey blood flow
Nasal Septum Made up by the ethmoid bone and the septal cartilage.
Spheno-ethmoidal recess Lying superoposterior to superior concha, recieves the opening of the sphenoid sinus.
Sphenoid sinus Air filled cavity in the sphenoid bone. In very close association to the cavernous sinus, pituitary gland, optic nerve and chiasm, internal carotid A.
Superior nasal meatus Narrow passage b/w superior and middle nasal concha. Recieves the posterior ethmoidal sinuses.
Middle nasal meatus longer and deeper than the superior. receives the frontal sinus via ethmoidal infundibulum. Also recieves the ethmoidal cells, and maxillary sinuses
Semilunar Hiatus Semicircular groove into which the fronal sinus opens.
Ethmoidal Bulla Rounded elevation located superior to the hiatus. Consists of all the ethmoidal air cells/ sinuses
Inferior Nasal Meatus horizontal passage inferolateral to the inferior nasal concha. Recieves the Nasolacrimal duct.
Nasolacrimal duct drains tears from the lacrimal sac.
Frontal Sinus between the outer and inner tables of the frontal bone, posterior to the root of the nose. Drain through the frontonasal duct into the ethmoidal infundibulum. Innervated by branches of the supraorbital N.
Ethmoidal cells small invaginations of the mucous membrane of the middle and superior nasal meatus into the ethmoid bone b/w the nasal cavity and the orbit.
Maxillary sinus Largest of the paranasal sinuses. occupy the body of the maxilla, communicate with the middle nasal meatus via the semilunar hiatus. It goes from the orbit to the alveolar part of the maxilla. Neurovascular comes from superior alveolar A and N
Sinus Drainage Largely revolves around the hiatus semilunaris and pathogens can enter and cause infection or blockage leading to pain.
Drainage of maxillary air sinus Sinus infections can affect the upper teeth, and an upper tooth decay can spread into the sinus creating infection. Irrigating the sinus is possible through the opening into the middle meatus.
Created by: WeeG