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Muscle Anatomy 2013

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 major functional characteristics of muscle? contractility, excitability, extendability, elasticity
what is contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
what is excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
what is extensibility the ability to be stretched
what is elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
what do muscles help produce? heat that is essential for maintenance of normal body temperature
what is epimysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds skeletal muscle
what is fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium. it surrounds and separates muscles
what is perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fasciculi
what is muscle fasciculi numerous visible bundles
what are fibers fasciculi composed of single muscle cells
what is endomysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds each muscle fiber
what are myofibrils a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
what are the 2 major types of protein fibers? actin and myosin
what are actin myofilaments thin myofilaments that resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
what are myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments that resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
what are sarcomeres highly ordered units formed by actin and myosin
what is resting membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane
what is action potential the breif reversal back of the charge
nerve cell that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
what enters the muscle and branch axons
each branch that connects to the muscle forms a _________, or __________ near the center of the cell neuromusclular junction, or synapse
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called ______ motor unit
how is a neuromusclular junction formed an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane
what is the enlarged nerve terminal called presynaptic terminal
what is the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft and the muscle fiber is the postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter called________ acetycholine
what is the acetylcholinesterase acetylcholine released into synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell, rapidly broken down by the enzymes.
erector spinae found in each stride of the back
what is the erector spinae do it is responsible for erect posture
what is the external intercostals it is the contract during inspiration
internal intercostals is the contract during forced expiration
what is the dome shaped muscle diaphram
what does the diaphram do it is responsible for quiet breathing
what are the abs called rectus abdominus
the white line of connective tissue that extends from the sternum to the pubis is called the linea alba
tendinous inscriptions cross the rectus abdominus in 3 places & forms a segregated look in the abs
two types of external abdominal obliques internal and tranverse
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
what 2 muscles attach the arm to the thorax pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles”
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb
Triceps brachii extends the forearm. Occupies the posterior compartment of the arm
Biceps brachii flexes the forearm. Occupies the anterior compartment of the arm.
Brachialis flexes forearm
Brachioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm.
Retinaculum (bracelet) strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist.
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers.
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
intrinsic hand muscles 19 hand muscles,located within the hand
Gluteus maximus buttocks
Gluteus medius hip muscle and common injection site
Quadriceps femoris extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles
Sartorius “tailors muscle”; flexes the thigh
Hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle
a muscle fiber is surrounded by the endomysium
the whole muscle is surrounded by 2 layers of tissue called facia and epimysium
a muscle is composed of numerous bundles called muscle fasciculi
what is it called when there is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus a muscle twitch
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimuli until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
the time of contraction is the _______ phase contraction
the time during which the muscle relaxes is the ___________ phase relaxation
the condition where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing is called tetany
aerobic respiration occurs when in the presence of oxygen
what are the 2 types of tongue muscle intrinsic and extrinsic
which tongue muscle changes the shape of the tongue intrinsic
what does the orbicularis oculi do closes the eyelid
what does the zygomaticus do makes you smile
sneering is accomplished by the ______ ________ _________ levatar labii superiorous
the frowning muscle is called the _________ _________ __________ depresser anguli oris
Created by: Kmorelia