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A&P Final 2011

General Final

study of structure of an organism and relationships of it's parts- anatomy
study of the functions of living organisms and their parts- physiology
structural levels of organization in the body- chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ systems
units of functional organization- cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
11 main organ systems of the body- integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
lying face upward- directional term- supine
lying face downward- directional term- prone
toward the head, upper or above- directional term- superior
toward the feet, lower or above- directional term- inferior
front or in front of- directional term- anterior
meaning toward the belly(anterior)- directional term- ventral
toward the back(posterior)-directional term- dorsal
toward midline-directional term- medial
toward the side of the body or away from midline-directional term- lateral
nearest point of origin or trunk of the body-directional term- proximal
away from point of origin or trunk of the body-directional term- distal
nearer the surface-directional term- superficial
farther away from body surface-directional term- deep
plane division leaving left and right sides- saggital plane
plane division leaving left and right EQUAL sides- mid-saggital plane
plane division leaving front and back sides- frontal plane
plane division leaving upper and lower portions- transverse plane
2 major body cavities- ventral and dorsal
system with major function being synthesizing vitamin D- integumentary
system with major function being forming blood cells- skeletal system
system with major functions being producing heat and maintaining posture- muscular system
fast acting system that activates muscles and glands- nervous system
system responsible for immunity and picking up and returning leaked fluid to and from blood- lymphatic system
system mostly composed of filters that regulate water, electrolytes, pH balance of blood- urinary system
feedback system where the output shuts off the original system- negative feedback system
feedback system that enhances or exaggerates the original system- positive feedback system
substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means- elements
atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons- isotope
average of the mass numbers of all isotopes- atomic weight
contains carbon, hydrogen, and major function is to supply a source of cellular food- carbohydrates
neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids are classified as- lipids
tri-glycerides with 2 fatty acids and a phosphorous layer- phospholipids
proteins are made bound together- amino acids and peptide bonds
tissue in skin, body linings, serous membranes, and some glandular tissues - epithelial tissue
epithelial tissue functions- protection, absorption, filtration, secretion
connective tissues perform what functions- binding, support, protection, insulation, and transportation
cells undergo rapid division in this layer- basal layer
paired spinal and cranial nerves. carry messages to and from the spinal cord and brain- peripheral nervous system
peripheral nervous system's 2 functional divisions- sensory which is afferent and motor which is efferent
the nervous system's motor division's 2 parts- somatic, and autonomic nervous system
receptive or input regions of the neuron- the dendrites of motor neurons
the site of protein synthesis- ribosomes
membranous bags containing digestive enzymes- lysosomes
organizes mitotic spindle during mitosis- centrioles
centriole pairs and separate and the mitotic spindle is formed in what phase- early and late prophase
chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell. centromeres align at the center- metaphase
chromosomes extend, nuclear membrane is formed; completes division- telophase and cytokinesis
transfer of information from DNA to RNA happens during- transcription
decoding of MRNA and production of protein occurs during- translation
smooth endoplasmic reticulum's main function- lipid metabolism
3 main types of receptors- mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and nociceptors
the regions of the spine and how many vertebrae they have- cervical 8, thoracic 12, lumbar 5, sacral 5, coccygeal 1
five components of a reflex arc- receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effector
which nervous system innervates smooth muscle, cardiac, and glandular tissue- autonomic nervous system
divisions of ANS- sympathetic and parasympathetic
mobilizes body during extreme situations- "e"vents- exercise, excitement, emergency, embarrassment- sympathetic system
performs maintenance, responsible for "d" activities- digestion, diuresis, defecation- parasympathetic system
membrane lining eyelids, lubricates and protects eye- conjunctiva
the blind spot of the eye, where optic nerves leave the eye- optic disc
plasma like fluid that fills the anterior of the eye, supports and nourishes- aqueous humor
posterior to the iris, helps refract light- lens
pathway of light entering the eye- cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, neural layer of retina, photoreceptors
3 regions of the brain stem- midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
4 major membrane types- serous, mucous, synovial, cutaneous
layers of skin- epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
sweat glands associated with body temp- eccrine glands
major parts of axial skeleton- skull, spine, thoracic cage
major parts of appendicular skeleton- limbs, pectoral and pelvic girdle
responsible for striations in skeletal muscle- alternating actin and myosin
the energy used in contraction of muscle is due to the decomposition of what- ATP
3 small auditory bones- malleus, stapes, and incus
contains photoreceptors, responsible for light/impulse conversion- retina
erythrocytosis- abnormal increase in RBC
makes up 70% of WBC, initial responder to invaders- neutrophils
the WBC that is key in inflammatory response- basophils
the WBC that is key in allergic response- eosinophils
lymphocytes that synthesize/secrete antibodies- B cells
T lymphocytes that secrete protein and increase B cell function- helper T cells
T lymphocytes that destroy- cytotoxic T cells
reduction of RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, increased destruction of RBC- anemia
disorder which causes depression of erythrocyte production, hematopoietic tissue replaced by fatty tissue- aplastic anemia
immunity where body produces specific antibodies to combat infection- active immunity
immunity cause by being given a weak antigen which stimulates forming of antibodies- artificial acquired immunity
immunity by way of leukocyte action- cell mediated immunity
immunity by way of antibody-antigen response- humoral immunity
immunity from being exposed to a disease and producing antibodies- naturally acquired active immunity
secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones- adrenal cortex
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine- adrenal medulla
secretes ADH (vasopressin)- posterior pituitary (neurohypopthysis)
hormone that stimulates ovulation- LH
hormone that stimulates egg production and hormone secretion- FSH
secretes thyroxine, calcitonin, and T4, T3- thyroid gland
gas exchange- oxygen is added to the blood and carbon dioxide is removed- respiration
upper tract of respiratory system- nose, pharynx, larynx
lower tract of respiratory system- trachea, bronchi, lungs
inhaling air into lungs and exhaling- external respiration
cellular respiration, exchange between blood and tissue- internal respiration
how many lobes in the lungs- right 3, left 2
alimentary canal consists of- mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine
components of small intestine- duodenum, jejunum, ileum
components of large intestine- cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
accessory digestive organs- salivary glands, teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
3 parts of a tooth- enamel, dentin, pulp cavity
organ that main function is to absorb water and vitamins- large intestine
long shaft of the bone, hollow, made of compact bone- diaphysis
hollow area inside diaphysis containing yellow bone marrow- medullary cavity
ends of the bone, composed of spongy bone- epiphyses
thin layer of cartilage covering epiphyses- articular cartilage
strong fibrous membrane covering long bone except joints- periosteum
thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity- endosteum
trabeculae is to spongy bone as ______ is to compact bone- osteons
concentric lamella surrounds- blood vessel
"growth plate"- epiphyseal plate
muscles are made up of thick and thin- myofilaments
muscle that is mainly responsible for producing a particular movement- prime mover
muscles that help in producing movement- synergists
muscles that relax to help other muscles in a contraction- antagonist
chemical compounds released from axon terminals into a synaptic cleft- synapse
support cells that bring the cells of nervous tissue together structurally and functionally- glia cells
major center for controlling ANS- hypothalamus
first messenger hormones- non-steroid hormones
powerful substances that are produced in a tissue and diffuse a short distance to act on cells in that tissue- prostaglandin
decreases blood calcium concentration by inhibiting breakdown of bone- calcitonin
percentage of blood in our bodies- 7-9% of body weight
formed elements of blood- RBCs, WBCs, thrombocytes
granular leukocytes- neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
nongranular leukocytes- lymphocytes, monocytes
RBC count- around 5 mil per mm of blood
WBC count- 5,000- 10,000 per mm of blood
platelet count- 300,000 per mm of blood
substance that can activate immune system- antigen
substance made by body in response to stimulation of antigen- antibody
contraction of the heart- systole
relaxation of the heart- diastole
carry blood away from the heart- arteries
carry blood to the heart- veins
carry blood from the arterioles to the venules- capillaries
3 layers of blood vessels- tunica externa, tunica media, tunica intima
pacemaker of the heart- SA node
causes air to move in and out of the lungs- air pressure from size or shape change of the thorax
amount normally breathed in or out with each breath- tidal volume
greatest amount of air that one can breathe out in one expiration- vital capacity
amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring- expiratory reserve volume
amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after inspiring- inspiratory reserve volume
air that remains in the lungs after forceful expiration- residual volume
respiratory control centers are found in- medulla
layers of muscle tissue responsible for peristalsis- muscularis
how many permanent teeth- 32
largest salivary glands- parotid glands
how long is small intestine- about 20 ft.
when kidneys do not produce urine- urinary suppression
when no urine is voided- urinary retention
cup shaped top of the renal corpuscle- bowmans capsule
network of blood capillaries surrounded by bowmans capsule- glomerulus
drains urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder- ureters
involuntary regulatory sphincter in urinary system- internal urethral sphincter
voluntary regulatory sphincter in urinary system- external urethral sphincter
ph level of 12 is thought to be- a base
ph level of 2 is thought to be- an acid
normal ph of arterial blood- 7.45
essential organs of reproduction- the testes and the ovaries
sperm pre cursor cells- spermatogonia
produces yellowish thick secretions rich in fructose to provide sperm with energy- seminal vesicles
produces 30% of seminal fluid volume which is thin and milky prostate gland
secretes mucus like fluid contributing 5% of seminal fluid cowper's gland
ovarian follicles covered in granulosa cells- primary follicles
ovarian follicles with a hollow chamber called the antrum- secondary follicles
this forms after ovulation- corpus luteum
granulosa cells produce- estrogen
corpus luteum produces- progesterone
ducts that drain at the nipple- lactiferous ducts
first 4 days of the menstrual cycle- menses
days between the end of menses and the secretory phase- proliferative phase
days between ovulation and next menses- secretory phase
Created by: 1021980017



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