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Chapter 8 - Terms


Ancients and Moderns Ancients believed that Greeks and Romans had never been surpasses (boo changes yay feudalism); Moderns thought own time was best - logical because they had more time to build knowledge
First Cause the modern person's view of God; feared him less, no longer a 'Father'; more of a designer, up to us to discover it (scientific backing of religion)
Watchmaker analogy used to scientifically back up the existance of God; would reason about God, shows religious undercurrent during Enlightenment; world, like watch, too complex to just appear, needs a designer to create it
Pietism movement that stirred Germanic Lutherans; fix from within, illumination of soul rather than reason; counter-enlightenment
John Wesley founder of Methodist church; evangelistic; preached to immense crowds; "enthusiastic"; individual worth and stressed religion outside of traditional churches
F.A. Mesmer father of hypnotice, or mesmerizing; Austrian physician
Freemasonry secret society, because it wasn't safe otherwise - drew skepticism; typical views: reason, progress, toleration
philosophe a group of enlightened writers who were social or literary critics; spread their enlightened ideals through the masses for the public; approached subject in critical and inquiring spirit
Encyclopedie Denis Diderot; first secular/Enlightened encyclopedia; collection of scientific, technical and historical knoledge
Denis Diderot editor of Encyclopedie; a philosophe
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Edward Gibon's famous book that attacked Christianity in a philosophical way; documents had questionable sources and contradictions
Montesquieu 1689-1755; wrote The Spirit of Laws; to ensure liberty of people, power of gov needed to be divided into 3 branches; branches should have power to check/limit power of other 2 - no branch a threat of liberty; basis for US constitution; republic
Voltaire 1684-1778; Escrasez l'infame-crush the infamous thing aka religion, stuff stops you thinking unsciencey; most famous; admired England, system befor maj Europe; - concerned w/polit freedom; gov enlighten society; 1 write secular history; enlight despotism
Rousseau 1712-1778; swiss/frnch; The Social Contract; man of feeling,contradict himself; Man born free, in chains; legitgov is 1 who rules w/consent of people; people should b soverign; "General Will" of people is powerful: liberty&justice thrive; all kinds of gov
The Spirit of Laws Montesquieu; gov would vary according to climate and size; 3 branches of gov for separation and balance of power: leg, executive, judical
Social Contract Rousseau; "spirit of nature" was brutish and without morals or law; good men only by an improved society
General Will an understanding where all individuals surrender national liberty to each other and fuse wants together; not determined by vote but by common interest; liberty&justice thrive, people surrender natural liberties to each other
physiocrat "economists"; close to gov as advisors or admin; concerned themselves with fiscal&tax reform and national wealth
Adam Smith British economic philosopher; The Wealth of Nations; internatiional free trade; domestic: market economy; 3 natural laws of economics: self interest, competition, supply and demand
self-interest why do they start a business? self interest (for family, personal wealth etc)
competition 2 positive effects: quality of product will go up; cheaper prices
suppy and demand "invisible hand" controlling economy; market - what i can charge that people will buy?
Wealth of Nations Adam Smith's book,
"invisible hand" what guides the economy, 3 natural laws of economics
Enlightenment Philosophy reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty
Reason a divine force, which is the absence of intolerance, bigotry, or prejudice in one's thinking
Nature what is natural is also good and reasonable; there are natural laws of economics and politics just as there are natural laws of science
Happiness well-being on earth is possible and a person who lived by nature's laws can find happiness
Progress society and humankind can be perfected if people use the scientific approach
Liberty the philosophes were inspired by the English Glorious Revolution and Bill of Rights; believed that through reason, society could be set free
derivation of term "Age of Enlightenment"? they coined it themselves
philosophies became obsessed with what? progress!
center of Enlightenment France
taille French land tax that was paid mostly by poor; French people are rich but gov is poor (Old Bargain)
vintieme (twentieth); 5% tax on all income for all property for all classes; lasts through revolution
Maupeou gov official under Louis XV; try to implement some enlightened changes: get rid of local parlement, put his own people there; more uniform laws; anti-states rights; never enacted, Louis XV wipes it out
"Maupeou Parlements" judges guarenteed a safe job; forbidden to reject gov edicts or judge constitutionality; only judicial process; people appointed by him
Turgot early Louis XVI; drop internal tariffs; abolish corvee&tax reform (tax nobility)- nobles resist (Old Bargain); religious toleration; kicked out 1776
corvee requirement that certain peasants labor on the roads each year; labor tax
Joseph II king of enlightened despotism; no serfdom, equal tax, equal punishment, liberty of press, centralize state, national language; shows that enlight. despot only so powerful as majority can accept (policies changed after death)
Febronianism open and brash clash w/the pope (Joseph II); national independence from Rome
"revolutionary emperor" aka Joseph II; anticipated Frnch Revolution; reforms didnt last; absolute ruler cant necessarily do all he pleased (esp w/most powerful class against you)
"Old Fritz" aka Fredrick the Great; religious freedom, elementary education, classes lived in segregated society (couldnt buy land from another class)- military aim, made all his own decisions-- shows why Prussia might not have lasted
Junker class commanded the Prussian army and so couldn't be hassled by Kings (their serfs didnt get more liberties, couldnt push it)
enlightened despotism secular? no mention of divine rights; anti-jesuit; no tie to church
jusity authority of enlightened despot? usuefulness to society; "first servant of the state"; keeping power, but i'll be useful
meaning of different "tempo" of enlightened despot? gotta do things now: fast and a lot
awkwardness in "dynastic" claim to throne for enlightened despot? yes, no divine rights, but they inherited it; enlightenment all about breaking with past, tradition is wrong
what happens to govs of nations after being in major wars? gov gets power from wars, gonna keep power after war; use power to fix society (progressive era)
why is France chronically poor? Old Bargain - cant tax the nobles; might be richer than England, but inability to tax screws em over
who did France go to war w/ in 1778 England - American Revolution
what aroused feelings of nationalism in Joseph II's reign? had official language German; offended Bohemia and Hungary
virtual representation England's responce to 'no representation'; you are because Commons didnt speak for local towns but for imperial interests as a whole
Treaty of Paris (1783) ending of American Revolution; Britian maintains Savannah and Canada
federalism allocation of power between central and local gov; developed in time of anti-centralized soverign power; compromise system w/power shared between states and central gov
"Old Regime" french revolution replaces this with 'modern society'; pre-revolution gov of 3 Estates; Henry IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI
"modern society" aka enlightened society/gov; democracy, individual freedoms and liberties; France after revolution
estate social distinction, order of society, determined legal and bragging rights; 1st: clergy, 2nd: nobility, 3rd: everyone else
eminent property lesser landlords within a manor could buy, sell, lease, inherit plots of land; owed rent to manor lord in exchange; BUT... land=blood; if i sell you piece, its not really yours, always mine; if i ever really need it i can take it back
feudal reaction manorial lords raised collected dues more often because of rising living costs & higher living standards; peasants were under increasing pressure at a time when feudal dues became more unpopular; enemy to modernism & revolution, old feudal system
American War for Independence also European struggle for empire taxes; France's huge involvment in that war - then used war in order to turn on Britian
Catherine II (The Great) wife of Peter III & tzarina of Russia; summond a Legislative Commission; serdom ended up regressing; considered enlightened by the textbook
Legislative Commission learned she (Catherine III) had a strong hold on Russia and so enacted reforms: legal condification, restrictions on tortue use, some religious toleration, couldnt do much for serfs
Emelian Pugachev announced himself to be the true czar & military conscription; 10s of 1000s flocked to him; ravished through east Russia killing landlords & trashing towns; eventually betrayed
Eastern Question the Polish - Turkish land that separated Russia from Western Europe (Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine)
"Greek Project" Greek Orthodox: want to take back traditional Orthodox land that was taken by the Turks; aka take over Ottoman Empire; carve up Poland instead: balance of power (get port to Black Sea, cost of taking Ottoman Empire would antagonize Prussia& Austria, war)
Odessa Russian seaport on Black Sea; major city in Russia
Alexander I Catherine's grandson; raised in spirit of enlightenment; drove to be traditional by Napolean
"Atlantic Revolution" 1760s - 1848; Democratic Revolution, Atlantic Revolution, Bourgerisie Revolution (them saying "we're done, not taking it from nobles anymore"); ideals of democracy affirmed
commonwealthmen those who looked at Puritan Revolution & Cromwell favorably; undercurrent of discontent
Major John Cartwright leader of the British Parliament Revolution
Edmund Burke 1729-1797; founder of philosophical conservatism; landowning interest in a society should govern; parliament should be independent&responsible, not math represent; represents in parliamentary body should follow own best judgement of the countrys interest
Highlanders Scots who revolted w/Jacobites in invasion of England; never been under gov, follow heads of clans; to control them, England clamped down
United Irish Catholics & Presbyterians unite (enemy of enemy is friend); tryed to drive out England but British suppressed rebellion
Act of Union of 1801 Ireland joined in United Kigndom of GB and Ireland
Englightenment continued what process in Russia westernization
lawless struggle between Peter Great and Catherine Great - why? family tree.. whoever had a claim to throne can do it, but not stable; (Peter Great hadnt named an hier to his throne)
reforms enacted by Catherine Great (enlightened despot) committee to investigate country, see what needs to happen; lists laws & write down on paper; laws for everyone; considered reforming serdom: cant push it too far because nobles would be mad
Catherine the Great is... the flag holder of enlightenment for medival people
effect of Pugachev's Rebellion serfdom repressed; more restrictions, Catherine Great learned from mistake, no more freedom serfs!
foreign policy of Catherine Great expansionism - enlightened despots arent peace lovers; what are we gonna do w/ eastern question?
undemocratic characteristics of Atlantic Revolution still monarchs left after movement; not everyone gets to vote (only bourgeoisie); no welfare
ideals of Enlightened Despotism major change to society by changing from above
representation based off what? numbers
commonwealthmen believed that despotism in England could be traced back to what event Norman Conquest
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