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Male reproductive

gametes = haploid cells produced for sexual reproduction; male= sperm, female= egg
gonads = produce gametes; male= testis, female= ovary
SRY gene testis determining factor; the indifferent gonad --> becomes testis and secretes TESTOSTERONE and MULLERIAN INHIBITING FACTOR (mullerian duct develops in males, absent in females)
mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) stimulates degeneration of female (Mullerian) ducts --> becomes uterine tube & uterus
testosterone stimulates development of male reproductive structures
homologous structures: genital tubercle penis or clitoris
homologous structures: urogenital folds ventral penis or labia minora
homologous structures: labioscrotal folds scrotum or labia majora
gubernaculum "pulls" gonads down (from thoracic region to pelvic cavity) --> testes pulled through INGUINAL CANAL: testes extended through SCROTUM; failure= sterility
puberty Period of onset of GONADOTROPIN secretion (including FSH and LH) until first menstrual period (females; 12 yrs) or ejaculation of sperm (males; 13 yrs)
GnRH from HYPOTHALAMUS; =gonadotropin-releasing hormone, stimulates FSH & LH
FSH & LH secreted from... anterior pituitary
LH stimulates... LH (in response to GnRH) → stimulates interstitial cells of testes → secrete testosterone
FSH stimulates... SUSTENTACULAR CELLS --> secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP) into lumen of seminiferous tubules
effects of testosterone on body growth of the sex organs, body growth, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) --> development of the pubic, axillary, and facial hair and apocrine glands, rising rate of sperm production, stimulates BRAIN and awakens the LIBIDO (sex drive)
FSH & LH negative feedback TESTOSTERONE (stimulates LH) = inhibits GnRH secretion by hypothalamus & GnRH sensitivity of pituitary; SUSTENTACULAR cells= secrete INHIBIN --> limits FSH production
spermatogenesis =process of sperm production: from MEIOSIS to SPERMIOGENESIS, 1st location = yolk sac --> colonize gonads --> spermatogonia
meiosis diploid cell 2n (23 PAIRS of chromosomes) --> 4 HAPLOID cells (23 unpaired chromosomes); # chromosome is halved, CROSSING OVER occurs
test question: spermatogenesis vs. spermiogenesis spermatogenesis= production of sperm; spermiogenesis= process within spermatogenesis
formation of 4 spermatids (spermatogenesis process) spermatogonia (2n diploid)= stem cells -->1 PRIMARY spermatocyte enter meiosis I --> 2 SECONDARY spermatocytes enter meiosis II --> 4 spermatids
spermiogenesis = differentiation; spermatid becomes SPERMATOZOON (growth of flagellum, shedding of excess cytoplasm --> MATURE SPERM); occurs in SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, sandwiched in between SUSTENTACULAR CELLS --> blood-testis barrier
head of spermatozoon ACROSOME (lysosome w/ enzymes to penetrate ovum; bursts open to get sperm to egg), NUCLEUS (form male PRONUCLEUS of zygote), BASAL BODY (centriole from which flagellum is formed)
semen =sperm-containing fluid = mix of secretions from seminal vesicle, prostate, seminiferous tubules
Created by: kpan