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Kourtney Ekerss

Chapter 6

Muscle cells. Muscle fibers
Puckes the mouth. Orbicularis oris
Closes the eyelids and causes "crow feet." Orbicularis Oculi
Raises the eyebrows. Occipitofrontals
Smiling muscle. Zygomaticus
Flattens the Cheek. "trumpeters muscle" Buccinator
Frowning muscle. Depressor Anguli Oris
Sneering muscle. Levator Labii Superioris
chewing (4 prts) Mastication, Temporalis, Masseter, and Pterygoid (2pr.-deep to mandable)
Changes shape of the tongue Intrinsic Tongue Muscle
Moves the tongue Extrinsic Tongue Muscle
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contractility
another connictive tissue locted outside the epimysium Fascia
Muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi that are surround by loose connective tissue Perimysium
Skeletal muscle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Epimysium
Thick Myofilaments Myosin Myofilaments
Thin Myofilaments Actin Myofilaments
Threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to another Myofibrils
Basic structural and functional unity of the muscle Sarcomeres
attachment site for actin Z Line
Light area that consists of actin I Band
Extends the lenth of the myosin A Band
In the center of each sarcomere is another light area H Band
Myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center at a dark staining band M Line
Brief reversal back of the charge Action Potential
Are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor Neurons
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates Motor Unit
Axons enter the muscles and branch and each branch that connects to the muscle forms Neuromusclular Junction or Synapse
Enlarge nerve terminal Presynaptic terminal
Space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is Synaptic Cleft
Muscle fiber is Postsynaptic Terminal
Each presynaptic terminal contains Synaptic Vesicles
Synaptic Vesicles that secrete a neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine
Length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction Isometric
The acetylchline released into the synaptic cleft into the neuron and muscle cell broken down by an enymes Acetylcholinesterase
As actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing Sarcomeres to shorten
When the sarcomeres shorten it causes the Muscle to shorten
Sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is Sliding Filament Mechanism
Is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle Twitch
Muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until stimulus reaches a level Threshold
Phenomenon is called All-or-none response
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of a contraction Lag Phase
Time of contraction Contraction Phase
Time during which the muscle relaxes is Relaxation Phase
Where the muscle remains contracted is Tetany
Increase in number of motor units being activated is Recruitment
Is needed for engery for muscle contraction ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate)
When muscles rest it can't stockpile APT but they can store another high-engery molecule Creatine Phosphate
Without Oxygen Anaerobic Respiration
With oxygen (more efficient) Aerobic Respiration
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose Oxygen Dept
Results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster then it can be produced in muscle cells Muscle Fatigue
Amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes Isotonic
Constant tension produced by the muscles of the body for a long period of time. Keeps head up and back straight Muscle tone
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-Twitch fibers
Contract more slowly and more resistant to fatigue Slow-Twitch fibers
The most stationary end of the muscle Orgin
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movment Insertion
Portion of the muscle between the orgin and the insertion Belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another are Antagonists
One another plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement Prime Mover
Lateral neck muscle(prime mover) Sternocleidomestoid
Rotates and abducts the head Lateral Neck Muscle
(meaning a twisted neck) wry neck Torticollis
Single sheet like muscle that covers the antero lateral neck Platysma
Group of muscles on each side of the back responsible for keeping the back straight and body Erector Spinae
Elevate ribs during imspiration Exteral Intercostals
Contract during forced expiration Internal Intercostals
Quiet breathing Diaphragm
"Abs" Flexes the verebral column Rectus Abdominis
"white line" consists of white connective tissue Linea Alba
Connective tissue that crosses the rectus abdominis giving to a segmentted appearance in a muscled person Teninous Inscriptions
Flexes, extends, and abducts the arm Deltoid
Draw, scapule towards vertebral column Rhomboids
"chest muscles" adducts and flexes the arm Pectpralis Major
Pulls the scapula interiorly Pectoralis Minor
Created by: Kourtneyekers



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