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MA - Respiratory

Respiratory System

QuestionAnswer
Microanatomy Respiratory System
Conduction portion of respiration is located: Outside and within the lungs
Function of conducting portion is: Move air into lungs, moisten and warm inspired air, and filter
Respiratory portion of respiration is located: Only in the lung
Function of respiration portion is: Exchange gases
Patency of conducting portion is maintained by: Bone, cartilage, and fibrous elements
Conduction portion consists of: Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
Respiratory portion consists of: Alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli
Respiratory epithelia changes are: Pseudostratified columnar >> ciliated columnar >> cuboidal >> simple squamous
Ciliated columnar epithelia begins: Between lobar and segmental bronchi
Cuboidal epithelia begins: At respiratory bronchioles
Simple squamous epithelia begins: Alveoli
Cartilage and seromucous glands are absent in: Bronchioles
Goblet cells end at: Terminal bronchioles
Ciliated cells end in: Respiratory bronchiole
Smooth muscles takes on a more prominent role when: Cartilage starts to end
Elastic fibers are found: At all levels, important for proper lung function
Three distinct regions of nasal cavity are: Vestibule, respiratory, and olfactory
Support for nasal vestibule Hyaline cartilage
Glands in nasal vestibule Sebaceous and sweat
Epithelium in nasal vestibule Stratified squamous, keratinized
Cell types in nasal vestibule Epdermal
Additional features in nasal vestibule Vibrissae
Support for nasal respiratory cavity Cartilage and bone
Glands in nasal respiratory cavity Seromucous
Epithelium in nasal respiratory cavity Respiratory
Cell types in nasal respiratory cavity Goblet, basal, ciliated, brush, serous, and DNES
Additional features in respiratory cavity Erectile-like tissue
Support for nasal olfactory cavity Bone
Glands in nasal olfactory cavity Bowman’s (serous)
Epithelium in nasal olfactory cavity Olfactory
Cell types in nasal olfactory cavity Olfactory, sustentacular, and basal
Additional features in nasal olfactory cavity Olfactory vesicle
Respiratory part of nasal cavity is lined by: Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and lamina propria
Lamina propria of nasal respiratory cavity tightly binds to: Underlying bone and cartilage
Mucoperiosteum Vascularized (arterial plexus and venous sinuses) with abundant lymphoid elements and lamina propria
Paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx are lined with: Respiratory epithelium
Olfactory epithelium is characterized by: Lack of goblet cells, presence of olfactory cells, and Bowman’s glands
Compared to respiratory epithelium, olfactory epithelium is: Taller
Respiratory cilia is ___, olfactory cilia is ___. motile, non-motile
Larynx is supported by: Hyaline and elastic cartilage
Larynx epithelial lining exhibits: Regional differences
Except at the epiglottis and vocal folds, larynx is lined by: Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Vocal cords and epiglottis are lined by: Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
Free edge of vocal folds reinforced with: Dense regular elastic connective tissue (vocal ligament)
True vocal cords, unlike false vocal cords, has: Striated muscle
Trachea is reinforced by: C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings
C-shaped cartilage rings connect to each other by: Fibroelastic connective tissue
Coughing causes trachea to: Collapse to a slit
Longitudinal folds in mucosa of trachea is formed by: Elastic fibers
Connecting the two free ends of the C-shaped cartilage ring is: Trachealis (smooth muscle)
Trachea is characterized by: Thick basement membrane, elastic lamina separating mucosa from submucosa, and seromucous glands in submucosa
Pathology of exposure to chronic irritants Increased number of goblet cells and decreased number of ciliated results in increased mucus secretion but reduced elimination
Small cell carcinoma, “oat cell”, arises from: DNES cells
Bronchial tree trends as size/diameter decreases Decrease in cartilage, number of glands and goblet cells, and height of epithelial cells and an increase in smooth muscle and elastic tissue
Secondary and tertiary bronchi are characterized by: Irregular plates of cartilage and two smooth muscle layers between lamina propria and submucosa
Bronchioles are characterized by: Lack of cartilage and submucosal glands, and are lined by ciliated simple epithelium with a large smooth muscle layer
Diameter of bronchioles <1 mm
Clara cells are located in: Bronchioles
Clara Cells Dome shaped ciliated cells found in the bronchioles that secretes glycosaminoglycan to reduce surface tension and degrade toxins with P450, and can also regenerate bronchiole epithelium
Abundant smooth muscle in bronchioles function to: Regulate bronchiole diameter
Terminal bronchioles are lined by: Simple cuboidal epithelium with many clara cells (and no goblet cells)
Diameter of terminal bronchioles < 0.5mm
Asthma Chronic inflammatory disease characterized by reversible bronchoconstriction
Symptoms of asthma Wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
Common treatment for asthma Albuterol, a B2-adrenergic receptor agonist
Sympathetic fibers in asthma B2-adrenergic, relaxes bronchial smooth muscles
Parasympathetic fibers in asthma Cholinergic, contracts bronchial smooth muscles
Respiratory bronchioles are similar to terminal bronchioles except: Walls are interrupted by gas-exchanging alveoli
Alveolar duct structure No wall of their own, formed by linear arrangements of alveoli with 2 to 3 alveolar sacs at end
Alveolar sacs have no: Smooth muscle
Alveolar ducts are controlled by: Sphincter formed from single smooth muscle cell
Interalveolar septum Contains pulmonary capillaries and reinforces walls of alveolar duct
Elastin fibers Surrounds alveoli, contributes to expiration and protects against distension (responsible for elastic recoil)
Leading cause of emphysema is: Smoking
Best treatment for smoking related emphysema is: Stop smoking
Elastase Released by macrophages and neutrophils and destroys elastic fibers in lungs
a1-antitrypsin protein Protects against elastase, chronic smoking inhibits
Ephysema Large fluid-filled spaces in lungs that decreases gas exchange capability
Emphysema becomes an irreversible disease once: Elastic fibers are destroyed (cannot be replaced)
Alveoli are lined by a: Simple squamous epithelium, consisting of type I and II pneumocytes
Type I pneumocytes Adjacent type I cells connected by tight junctions that covers 95% of alveolar surface, preventing seepage of fluid into lumen
Type II pneumocytes Cuboidal cell with dome surface extending into lumen, secretes surfactant
Pores of Kohn Pores between adjacent alveoli that allows air to equilibrate air pressure and collateral flow
Lobar pneumonia spreads through: Pores of Kohn
Surfactant contains: 2 phospholipids, dipalmitoyl phophatidylcholine and phosphatidylglyceral, and 4 surfactant apoproteins
Type I and II pneumocytes are regenerated by: Type II pneumocytes
Maternal diabetes can inhibit: Surfactant production
Alveolar macrophages are called: Dust cells
Dust cells are derived from: Circulating monocytes
Function of dust cell is to: Phagocytose small particles in alveolar lumen and help type II pneumocytes reuptake surfactant
Heart failure cells Dust cells that phagocytose extravasated RBCs and are filled with hemosiderin, producing rust colored sputum
Created by: emyang