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alveolus where gas exchange occurs; forms sac-like projections from end of bronchiole; responsible for movement of air (O2) into blood, blood into air (CO2)
within walls of alveoli... alveolar cells, macrophages on lining, lymphocytes, fluid w/ surfactant, capillary endothelial cell, RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE • respiratory membrane:
respiratory membrane contains... thin layer of water on surface (condensation mixes w/ surfactant), pink squamous ALVEOLAR CELLS (1st cell layer), capillary ENDOTHELIAL CELLS (2nd cell layer), basement membrane (sandwiched together): where respiratory takes place (movement of gases)
inspiration muscles sternocleidomastoid, scales, external & internal intercostals, pectoralis minor, DIAPHRAGM
expiration muscles expiration is PASSIVE (= release of inspiration muscles); FORCED expiration: internal intercostals, rectus abdominis, external abdominal obliques
ventral respiratory group (VRG) self- stimulating circuits that alternate between muscular contraction (inspiration) and relaxation (expiration); sends out signal to INTEGRATING SYSTEM info about blood pH & pressure --> stimulates inspiratory & expiratory neurons
ventilation = breathing; different than respiration; occurs mostly in DIAPHRAGM
Dorsal and Pontine Respiratory Groups (DRG, PRG) tweeks what happens in ventral group; get info on pH & chemicals; tell when to breath more quickly or deeply, have STRETCH RECEPTORS (tightness in lungs= stop breathing), IRRITANT RECEPTORS (shallow breathing w/ irritant), HYPOTHALAMUS influence
Boyle's law the pressure of a given quantity of gas is INVERSELY proportional to its volume; INspiration: atmospheric pressure > lung pressure; EXpiration: lung pressure > atmospheric pressure
Charles' law the volume of a gas is proportional to its temperature
lungs expand with.... thorax. lungs connected to thorax (though adhere to pleura cavity), surrounded by VISCERAL PLEURA; pull on parietal pleura --> pull on visceral pleura --> expand lung
pleural cavity's boundaries 1. visceral pleura (outermost surrounding lung); pleural cavity in between; 2. Parietal pleura
2 forces of expiration usually passive; involved ELASTIC RECOIL of thoracic cage & PULMONARY ELASTICITY
elastic recoil like to maintain shape @ end of expiration; during INspiration, thoracic cage moved against normal shape (takes muscle force), retain shape after expiration
pulmonary elasticity elastic fibers wrapping lungs (made of alveoli) stretching & returning to preferred shape
atelectasis = collapsed lung; when elastic recoil allows air to go in & elastic fibers pull lung in (if pierced, allowing air in)
at rest, _____ and _____ pressures are equal atmospheric & intrapulmonary pressures (760 mm Hg), though slightly negative pressure (-4) inside pleural cavity to help adhere lungs to thoracic wall
movement of lungs during INSPIRATION Expand thorax → (due to negative pressure) lungs adhere to thorax, lungs expanded, pulled open; intrapulmonary pressure= (-)3 mm Hg
movement during EXPIRATION External pressure on lungs from thorax PUSH from outside; intrapulmonary pressure= (+)3 mm Hg; Increase volume of lungs→ air flows in, Increase pressure → air flows out, volume goes down
resistance to airflow: 3 factors 1. diameter of bronchi/ bronchioles, 2. pulmonary compliance, 3. surface tension within alveoli
diameter of bronchi/ bronchioles bronchi stay OPEN due to cartilage rigidity; smooth muscles involved can DILATE bronchi via relaxation of muscle= BRONCHODILATION (Chatacholamines: E, NE) , or constrict = BRONCHOCONSTRICTION (via ACh, cold air, irritants, histamine)
anatomical dead space space within conducting system= not gas we can exchange; BRONCHOCONSTRICTION keeps anatomical deal space small = MORE EFFICIENT
why limit diameter of respiratory tree? if large open bronchi, less resistance to flow but more VOLUME contained --> not all air involved in gas exchange (anatomical dead space) --> less volume= more efficiency
pulmonary compliance flexibility of lungs & thorax, expandability of lungs; diminishes w/ aging (tissues of lungs become rigid, less elastic)
surface tension within alveoli = force we OPPOSE when expanding lung; = attraction between adjacent water molecules. inside lungs (alveoli) thin filament of water pulling TOWARD each other
great alveolar cells secrete SURFACTANT= REDUCE surface tension = LESS inward force on lungs; determine how early baby can be born in how much surfactant they could produce to allow breathing/ lung expansion
tidal volume cyclic volume increase/ decrease/ increase/ decrease with air going in and out of lungs; graph shows that lungs can expand (2x) past our normal breath
inspiratory reserve volume can double max tidal volume in lungs (3 L to 6 L) after normal inhale
residual volume air in lung you can't get rid of by breathing out in order to keep ALVEOLAR CELLS OPEN and avoid flattening from surface tension (unable to open again)
2 types of lung disorders restrictive, obstructive
restrictive lung disorder reduces pulmonary COMPLIANCE (expandability); when inhale sharply → don’t get enough inhability as you should, from any type of fibrosis ex: tuberculosis (reduce elasticity) o measure w/ spirometry
obstructive lung disorder disorders disrupt air FLOW (rate of air movement through lungs), measure= Forced Expiratory volume • Normally blow out 85% of vital capacity in 1 second (Forced Expiratory Volume) • Bronchitis, asthma: can’t expel as much (only 20-30%)
5 factors contributing to external respiration partial pressure of gasses, solubility, respiratory membrane thickness, respiratory membrane area, ventilation-perfusion coupling
Dalton's law of partial pressure of gasses o Percentages provide total fraction of pressure provided by that gas • Provides SAME FRACTION as total pressure o Ex: oxygen makes up 21% of volume of air → and 21% of total air pressure
solubility • Oxygen= nonpolar; does not dissolve well in water • CO2= pretty soluble, doesn’t want to leave liquid • Higher partial pressure → more gas will dissolve in liquid
ventilation-perfusion coupling Decrease OXYGEN pressure, increase CO2 --> pulmonary arterioles serving these alveoli CONSTRICT --> REDUCED alveolar ventilation, reduced perfusion (perfusion=moving blood through tissue)
gas transport: OXYGEN O2 carried in blood plasma bound to HEMOGLOBIN= OXYHEMOGLOBIN (HbO2), each hemoglobin holds 4 O2 molecules, 75% hemoglobin saturated w/ oxygen @ minimum --> go to alveoli= 100%
venous reserve 75% of oxygen remains bound to hemoglobin, remaining oxygen
utilization fraction 25% O2 unloaded to systemic tissues
gas transport: carbon dioxide carried in 3 ways: 1. dissolved in plasma (5%), 2. converted to bicarbonate ion (90%), 3. bound to hemoglobin (5%)
carbaminohemoglobin carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin: not the same place as oxygen
temperature & HbO2 HIGHER temperature --> promote HbO2 dissociation
Bohr Effect Lower pH (high CO2, more acidic) --> promotes HbO2 dissociation
Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) intermediate of glycolysis in RBCs, promotes HbO2 dissociation by binding to Hemoglobin, MORE BPG occuring w/ fever, TH, GH, epinephrine
Created by: kpan