Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Arteries/Veins

Cardiovascular System

QuestionAnswer
Definition of Artery carry blood away from heart
Definition of Vein carry blood to the heart
Tunica adventitia outer layer; collagen tissue and elastin; assists in supporting weight of arterial blood
Tunica media middle layer; transverse elastic fibers and smooth muscle; shunt blood to areas of need
Nitric Oxide produced by endothelial cells in tunica media; inhibits platelet aggregation; diminished release may contribute to risk of myocardial infarction
Tunica intima inner layer; endothelial cells; reduce leakage of arterial blood (waterproofs artery); produces nitric oxide
Elastic artery largest type of artery; able to expand and snap back; propel blood through arterial system; aortic arch, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta
Windkessel effect expansion and snapping back of arteries
Muscular artery distribute blood to various parts of body; mainly smooth muscle fibers; regulates blood flow to working areas of body; femoral artery, branches of aorta
Arterioles smallest and most numerous arteries; closest to capillaries; narrow lumen and thick muscular walls; constrict and dilate; important regulators to tissue
Definition of atherosclerosis build up of hard plaque on blood vessel walls; begins with injury to tunica intima
Cause of injury to tunica intima points of bifurcation, hypertension/barotraumas, cigarette smoke, smokeless tobacco
Process of atherosclerosis 1. injury to tunica intima 2. monocytes (macrophages) adhere to artery wall 3. macrophages engulf dead tissue 4. macrophages consume LDL cholesterol and form a mass, die and then become hard
Interlukin released by macrophages; stimulate growth of smooth muscle of the artery into the lumen of the vessel which further obstructs blood flow
Angina Pectoris when 50% or more of lumen of artery is blocked; symptoms of chest pain, pain radiating in the left pectoral area, left arm and left jaw
Referred pain areas of pain coincide with segmental distribution of the sensory fibers that enter the same spinal segments at the fibers coming from the heart.
Myocardial infarction when coronary blockage becomes severe enough to block off the supply of arterial blood
Stable angina atherosclerosis that remains stable (sometimes due to lifestyle changes)
Osteoponin manufactured by arterial wall; ability to form hydroxyapatite; released to prevent embolisms by strengthening arterial plaque; calcified cap is 5X stiffer than plaque
Embolism plaque that breaks off of the arterial wall and is travelling in the bloodstream; can eventually be lodged in a smaller artery causing a stroke or heart attack
Platelets provide initial plug at vascular injury; produce enzyme thromboxane A2
Thromboxane A2 induces platelet aggregation by making platelets stick together to form a clot; powerful vasoconstrictor which can further obstruct lumen of artery; cannot be synthesized by platelets
Aspirin used to reduce plaque by blocking the production of thromboxane A2; action is permanent; doses maximally effective at 325mg/day
Arteriosclerosis hardening of arteries; harder arteries are more susceptible to injury (doesn't dissipate the force of the blood)
Right coronary artery branch of aorta (ascending aorta); supplies arterial blood to SA node in 70% of pop and AV node in 80% pop; right atrium, anterior right ventricle, posterior aspect of right ventricle; forms posterior descending coronary artery in 50% pop
Right main dominant posterior descending artery is supplied by right coronary artery
Left coronary artery branch of aorta (ascending aorta); supplies SA node in 30% of pop and AV in 20% of pop; bifurcates into anterior descending coronary artery
Anterior descending coronary artery branch of left coronary artery; supplies anterior wall of left ventricle and circumflex artery
Circumflex artery branch of anterior descending coronary artery; supplies left lateral wall of the left ventricle
Posterior descending coronary artery branch of right or circumflex artery (depending on dominance); supplies posterior aspect of left ventricle
Left main dominant posterior descending artery is supplied by circumflex artery (a branch of the left coronary artery)
Left main dominance v. right main dominance better to be right dominant; if left coronary artery were to become blocked in a left dominant person, then the left lateral wall and the posterior aspect of the left ventricle would be affected.
Brachiocephalic artery branch of arch of aorta; supplies right aspect of head, neck and arm
Left common carotid artery branch of arch of aorta; supplies left aspect of head and neck
Left subclavian artery branch of arch of aorta; supplies left arm
Carotid arteries (internal and external) ascend neck ensheathed with the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve until the adam's apple
Internal Carotid artery bifurcates just lateral to optic chiasma into anterior and middle cerebral arteries
Anterior cerebral artery branch of internal carotid artery; supplies medial and superior regions of brain; contains many twists and turns and are very susceptible to blockage
Middle cerebral artery branch of internal carotid artery; supplies the lateral and temporal aspects of brain; contains many twists and turns and are very susceptible to blockage
Lenticulostriate arteries arteries to the basal ganglia; branch off of the middle cerebral artery at right angles; very susceptible to blockage
External carotid artery gives off eight branches; supplies face and scalp
Maxillary artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the orbit, teeth, upper and lower jaw, chewing muscles, nasal cavity and tissue.
Superficial temporal artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the scalp
Superior thyroid artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the hyoid bone, larynx, and thyroid gland
Lingual artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the tongue
Facial artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the face
Ascending pharyngeal artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the pharynx and middle ear
Occipital artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the superficial occipital tissue and scalp
Posterior auricular artery branch of external carotid artery; supplies the external ear and external meatus
Bronchial artery(ies) branch of thoracic aorta; supplies the lungs
Esophageal artery branch of thoracic aorta; supplies the esophagus
Pericardial artery branch of thoracic aorta; supplies the pericardium
Intercostal arteries branch of thoracic aorta; supply intercostal spaces
Thoracic wall arteries branch of thoracic aorta; supply abdominal muscles, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and deep back muscles
Mediastinal arteries branch of thoracic aorta; supply the mediastinum
Superior phrenic artery branch of thoracic aorta; supplies the superior diaphragm
Inferior phrenic artery branch of abdominal aorta; supplies the inferior diaphragm
Celiac trunk branch of abdominal aorta; has three branches
Left gastric artery branch of celiac trunk; supplies lesser curvature of stomach
Splenic artery branch of celiac trunk; supplies spleen and pancreas; gives off the left gastroepipolic artery and the short gastric artery
Gastroepipolic artery branch of splenic artery; supplies the greater curvature of stomach and omentums
Short gastric artery branch of splenic artery; supplies the fundus of stomach
Common hepatic artery branch of celiac trunk; supplies liver, pancreas, gallbladder; forms right gastric artery and right gastroepipolic artery
Right gastric artery branch of common hepatic artery; merges with left gastric artery to supply the lesser curvature of stomach
Right gastroepiploic artery branch of common hepatic artery; supplies the greater curvature of stomach and the greater omentum
Superior mesenteric artery branch of abdominal aorta; supplies all of small intestine and ascending and transverse colon
Inferior mesenteric artery branch of abdominal aorta; supplies the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum
Renal artery branch of abdominal aorta; supplies kidneys
Goadneal artery branch of abdominal aorta; supplies testes
Right subclavian artery terminal branch of brachiocephalic artery; many branches to the right arm
Vertebral artery branch of subclavian arteries; forms basilar artery
Basilar artery right and left aspects of vertebral arteries; bifurcates into right and left posterior cerebral arteries; leads to circle of willis
Circle of Willis formed by the posterior cerebral artery, internal carotid artery, and the anterior cerebral arteries; forms a collateral in the event of artery blockage
Internal thoracic artery branch of subclavian arteries; branches to first six intercostal spaces; forms superior epigastric artery and muscular phrenic artery
Epigastric artery branch of internal thoracic artery; supplies rectus abdominus
Muscular phrenic artery branch of internal thoracic artery; supplies the diaphragm
Thyrocervical artery branch of subclavian arteries; branches to thyroid gland; forms suprascapular artery, transverse cervical artery, and anastomoses with thoracodorsal artery around scapula
Suprascapular artery branch of thyrocervical artery; supplies supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subclavius, sternocleidomastoid, acromion/clavicular joint and clavicle.
Superficial transverse cervical artery branch of thyrocervical artery; supplies upper trapezius, sternocelidomastoid, scalenes, and levator scapula
Deep transverse cervical artery branch of thyrocervical artery; transitions into dorsal scapular artery; supplies rhomboids, subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, trapezius, teres minor, and teres major; anastomoses with thoracodorsal artery around scapula
Costocervical artery branch of subclavian arteries; supplies first two intercostal spaces and muscles to the neck
Axillary artery continuation of subclavian artery; many branches
Superior thoracic artery branch of axillary artery; supplies 1st and 2nd intercostal spaces, superior aspect of serratus anterior, pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
Thoracoacromial artery branch of axillary artery; supplies serratus anterior, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, deltoid and subclavian
Lateral thoracic artery branch of axillary artery; supplies serratus anterior, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor and subscapularis
Subscapular artery largest branch of axillary artery; has three branches
Posterior circumflex humeral artery branch of subscapular artery; supplies deltoid, biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, and the shoulder joint; anastomoses with anterior circumflex humeral artery around shoulder
Anterior circumflex humeral artery branch of subscapular artery; supplies biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, deltoid, and head of humerus; anastomoses with posterior curcumflex humeral artery around shoulder
Thoracodorsal artery branch of subscapular artery; supplies posterior area of scapula; anastomoses with dorsal scapular artery around scapula
Brachial artery continuation of axillary artery; many unnamed and named branches
Profunda brachii artery largest branch of brachial artery; supplies an occasional nutrient artery to the humeral head; anastomoses with radial recurrent artery around elbow
Anastomose functionally important; provides ample blood flow when the joint is flexed
Nutrient humeral artery branch of the axillary artery; supplies the nutrient canal of the humerus
Superior ulnar collateral artery branch of the axillary artery; anastomoses with posterior ulnar recurrent artery and anterior ulnar recurrent artery around elbow
Inferior ulnar collateral artery branch of axillary artery; anastomoses with the anterior ulnar recurrent artery around elbow
Ulnar artery division of brachial artery; forms superficial palmer arch artery and four common palmer digital arteries; many branches
Superficial palmer arch artery branch of the ulnar artery; moves transversely across the palmer surface of the hand; supplies the superficial palmer surface; anastomoses with the radial indicis artery around the palm.
Palmer digital arteries branch of the ulnar artery; anastomose with the palmer metacarpal arteries around the fingers
Anterior ulnar recurrent artery branch of ulnar artery; supplies brachialis and pronator teres; anastomoses with the inferior ulnar collateral artery around elbow
Posterior ulnar recurrent artery branch of ulnar artery; supplies flexor digitorium profundus and flexor carpi ulnaris; anastomoses around the elbow
Anterior interosseus artery branch of ulnar artery; supplies muscles on either side of the antebrachium and the ulna and radius; anastomoses with the posterior interosseous artery
Created by: alysiae