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chapter 7 neurons

What is anther name for neurons (neurons) nerve cells
What do neurons do (neurons) transmit messages (nerve impulses) from one part of the body to another
What do all neurons have (neurons) cell body which contains the nucleus and is the metabolic center of teh cell, and one or more slender processes extending from the cell body
What does the cell body do (neurons) metabolic center of the neuron.
What does the cell body consist of (neurons) contains organelles except for centrioles, rough ER, call Nissl substance, and neurofibrils (important in maintaining cell shape)
Neuron cells processes (fibers)look like (neurons) vary length from microscopic to 3-4 feet. The longest one in humans is from the lumbar region of the spine to the great toe.
What are neuron processes that convey incoming messages toward the cell body called (neurons) dendrites
What are neuron processes that generate nerve impulses and conduct them away from the cell called (neurons) (neurons) Axon
Neurons can will have hundreds of branching ----- (neurons) dendrites (dendr = tree)
Neurons will only have one ---- (neurons) Axon (from a cone like region of the cell body called the axon hillock)
axons branch profusely at their terminal end forming hundreds to thousands of ---- (neurons) axon terminals
Axon terminals contain (neurons) hundreds of tiny vesicles,or membranous sacs that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters
Each axon terminal is separated from the next neuron by a tiny gap called (neurons) the synaptic cleft
The synaptic cleft functional juntion is called (neurons) synapse
neurons never touch each other (neurons)
Most long nerve fibers are covered with a whitish, fatty material, called --- (neurons) myelin (has a waxy appearance)
What is the role of myelin (neurons) protects and insulates the fibers and increases the transmission rate of nerve impulses
Axons outside the CNS are myelinated by --- (neurons) Schwann Cells
What are Schwann cells (neurons) specialized supporting cells that wrap themselves tightly around the axon (jelly-roll fashion)(p. 228 7.5)
when the Schwann cells wrap around the axon a tight coil of wrapped membranes called what encloses the axon myelin sheath
Most of the Schwann cell cytoplasm ends up just beneath the outermost part of its plasma membrane. This part of the Schwann cell (external to the myelin sheath) is called --- (neurons) neurilemma
Since the myelin sheath is formed by individual Schwann cells, it has gaps or indentations call--- at regular intervals (neurons) nodes of Ranvier
myelinated fibers are also found in the CNS but there it is called--- that for CNS myelin sheaths oligodendrocytes
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) the myelin sheaths around the fibers are gradually destroyed, converted to hardened sheaths called (neurons) scleroses
For the most part cell bodies are found in the CNS in clusters called --- (neuron) nuclei
neurons do not routinely undergo cell division after birth
small collections of cell bodies called ganglia are found in a few sites outside the CNS in the PNS (neurons)
Bundles of nerve fibers running through the CNS are called --- tracts
Bundles of nerve fibers running through the PNS are called nerves
White matter consist of dense collections of myelinated fibers (tracts)in the CNS
Gray matter contains mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies in the CNS
Functional classification of neurons sensory or afferent, motor, and association neurons
neurons carrying impulses from the sensory receptors (in the internal organs or skin) to the CNS are --- (neurons) sensory or afferent (means: to go toward) neurons
The cell bodies of SENSORY neurons are always found in a ganglion outside the CNS
SENSORY neurons keep us informed about what is happening both inside and outside the body
The dendrite endings of the sensory neurons are usually associated with specialized --- that are activated by specific changes occuring nearby receptors
There are special sense organs and simple sensory receptors seen in skin (cutaneous sense organs) and in the muscles and tendons (proprioceptors)
the least specialized of the cutaneous receptors are the --- pain receptors (bare dendrite endings)
what are the most numerous receptors pain receptors because pain warns us that some type of body damage is occurring or is about to occur.
---- detects the amount of stretch or tension in skeletal muscles, their tendons, and joints proprioceptors
proprioceptors send information to the brain so proper adjustments can be made to maintain balance and normal posture (propia means "one's own") and the proprioceptors constantly advise our brain of our won movements
Neurons carrying impulses from the CNS to the viscera and /or muscles and glans are MOTOR or efferent neurons
The cell bodies are always located in the CNS
---- connect the motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways and like motor neurons their cell bodies are always located in the CNS association neurons or interneurons
structural classifications based on the number of processes extending from the cell body
if there are several process extending from the cell body the neuron is a multipolar neuron (since all motor and association neurons are multipolar this is the most common structural type)
neurons with two processes - axon and dendrite are called bipolar neurons
biplar neurons are rare in adults only found in some special sense organs (eye, nose)
Unipolar neurons have a single process emerging from the cell body.
nerve impulses neurons have two major functional properties (irritability and conductivity
the nerve function of irritability is the ability to respond to stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse irritability
the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glands is called conductivity
the plasma membrane of a resting or inactive neuron is polarized (fewer positive ions sitting on the inner face of the neuron's plasma membrane then there are on its outer face in the tissue fluid that surrounds it
major positive ions inside the cell are potassium (k+)
major positive ions outside the cell are sodium (Na+)
If the inside of the cell remains more negative as compared to the outside, the neuron will stay inactive
An inward rush of sodium ions changes the polarity of the neuron's membrane in event called depolarization
graded potential is when inside is now more positive and the outside is less positive
action potential
nerve impulse
Created by: Hootlc2005

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