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Vocab. Ch.13

The Endocrine System

hormone A chemical messenger with a specialized funtion.
steroid hormones Help controls metabolis, inflammation, immune functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics, and the ability to withstand illness and injury.
steroid Describes both hormones produced by the body and artificially produced hormones used in medications to duplicate the action of the naturally occuring steroids.
anabolic steroids Are chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone, have been used illegally by athletes to increase strength and muscle mass.
endocrinologist Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the glands of internal secretion.
endocrinopathy Is any disease du to a disorder of the endocrine system.
hypercrinism Is a condition caused by excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland.
hypocrinism Is a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland.
nuclear medicine/imaging techniques Used to diagnose and treat disorders affecting the endocrine system.
urine and blood testing Used to measure endocrine hormone levels and to detect the presence of anabolic steroids.
pituitary gland Is located at the base of the brain just below the hypothalamus and is composed of anterior and posterior lobes.
master gland To control the activity of the other endocrine glands.
adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) Also known as ADRENOTROPIN, stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex.
follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) Also known as FOLLITROPIN, in the female stimulates the secretion of extrogen and the growth of ova(eggs) in the ovaries. In the male, it stimulates the production of sperm in the testicles.
growth hormone(GH) Also known as SOMATOTROPIN(STH), regulates the growth of bone, muscle and other body tissues.
lactogenic hormone(LTH) Also known as PROLACTIN, stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk after childbirth.
luteinizing hormone(LH) Also known as LUTEOTROPIN, stimulates ovulation in the female. In the male, it stimulates testoterone secretion.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH) Also known as MELANOTROPIN, increases pigmentation of the skin.
thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) Also known as THYROTROPIN, stimulates the growth and secretions of the thyroind gland.
antidiuretic hormone(ADH) Maintains the water balance within the body by promoting the reabsorption of water through the kidneys.
diuretic When administered, urine secretion increases.
oxytocin Stimulates ueterine contractions during childbirth.
alcohol consumption Inhibits the secretion of ADH and results in increased urine output that can disrupt the body's fluid balance.
acromegaly Is enlargement of the extremities(hands and feet) caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty.
gigantism Also known as GIANTISM, is abnormal overgrowth of the body caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty.
hyperpituitarism Is pathology that results in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
hypopituitarism Is a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial or complete loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
pituitary adenoma Is a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes excess hormone secretion.
pituitarism Is any disorder of pituitary function.
prolactin-producing adenoma Also known as PROLACTINOMA, is a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin.
diabetes insipidus Is caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone(ADH) or by the inability of the kidneys to respond to ADH.
polydipsia Is excessive thirst.
polyuria Is excessive urination.
hypophysectomy Is use of radiation or surgery to remove all or part of the pituitary gland.
human growth hormone therapy(GH) Also known as RECOMBINANT GH, is a synthetic version of naturally occurring growth hormone. Is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development.
thyroid gland Butterfly shaped, lies on either side of the larynx, just below the thyroid cartilage.
metabolism Includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients, including the rate at which they are utilized.
thyroxin(T4)/triiodothyronine(T3) The primary thyroid hormones, regulate the rate of metabolism.
calcitonin Also known as THYROCALCITONIN, works with the parathyroid hormone(PH) to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues.
thyroid cancer Is commonly first indicated by an enlargement of the thyroid gland.
hypothyroidism Also known as an UNDERACTIVE THYROID, is a deficiency of thyroid secretion.
cretinism Is a congenital lack of thyroid secretion.
myxedema Is a severe form of adult hypothyroidism.
hashimoto's thyroiditis Is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks thyroid tissue, setting up inflammatory process that may progressively destroy the gland.
hyperthyroidism Is a condition of excessive thyroid hormones in the blood.
graves disease Is an autoimmune disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos.
goiter Also known as THYROMEGALY, is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland that produces a swelling in the front par of the neck.
exophthalmos Is an abnormal protrusion of the eyes.
thyrotoxicosis Also known as THYROID STORM, is a life-threatening condition resulting from the release of excessive quantities of the thyroid hormones into the bloodstream.
thyroid scan Is one means to measure thyroid function.
antithyroid drug Is a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
chemical thyroidectomy Also known as RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY, is the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells.
lobectomy Is the removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland.
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay Is a diagnostic test ot measure circulating blood levels of TSH.
parathyroid glands Four of which is about the size of a grain of rice, are located within the thyroid gland. Primary function is to regulate calcium levels throughout the body.
parathyroid hormone Also known as PARATHORMONE, works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues.
hypoparathyroidism Is a condition caused by an insufficient or absent secretion of the parathyroid glands.
tetany Is an abnormal condition characterized by periodic painful muscle spasms(cramps) and tremors.
hypocalcemia Is characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood.
hyperparathyroidism(HP) Is the overproduction of PTH. This causes hypercalcemia and may lead to weakened bones and the formation of kidney stones.
hyperIscalcemia Is characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones.
primary HP Is caused by a diseased parathyroid gland
secondary HP Is caused by a problem elsewhere in the body.
parathyroidectomy Is the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands, is performed to control hyperparathyroidism.
adrenal glands Control electrolyte levels within the body. Also referred to as the ADRENALS, are located one on top of each kidney. Consists of two parts.
adrenal cortex Is the outer portion of the adrenal gland.
adrenal medulla Is the middle portion of the adrenal gland.
electrolytes Are mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, found in the blood.
corticosteroid Is the name given to any of the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex or their synthetic equivalents.
mineralocorticoids Regulate the mineral salts in the body.
aldosterone the primary mineralocorticoids, regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption in the kidneys.
reabsorbtion Means returning a substance to the bloodstream instead of excreting it.
glucocorticoids Regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body. Also influence blood pressure and have an anti-inflammatory effect.
cortisol The primary glucocorticoid, also known as HYDROCORTISONE.
gonadocorticoids Also known as ANDROGENS, are hormones that influence sex-related characterisitics.
epinephrine Is a synthetc pharmaceutical used as a vasonconstrictor to treat conditions such as heart dyshythmias and asthma attacks. Also called ADRENALINE/NOREPINEPHRINE, stimulate the sympathetic nervous system.
adrenalitis Is an inflammation of the adrenal glands.
addison's disease Is a progressive disease that occures when adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol.
aldosteronism Is an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone.
primary aldosteronism Also known as CONNS SYNDROME, is aldosteronism due to disorders of the adrenal gland.
secondary aldosteronism Is not caused by a disorder of the adrenal gland.
pheochromocytoma Is a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine.
cushing's syndrome(CS) Also known as HYPEERCORTISOLISM, is caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol.
laparoscopic adrenalectomy Is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove one or both adrenal glands.
cortisone Also known as HYDROCORTISONE, is the synthetic equivalent of corticosteroids produced by the body. Is admininstered to suppress inflammation, and in transplant recipients it is administered as an immunosuppressant to prevent organ rejection by the body.
vasoconstrictor Causes the blood vessels to contract.
pancreas Is a feather-shaped organ located posterior to(behind) the stomach.
pancreatic islets Also known as ISLETS OF LANGERHANS, are cells within the pancreas that have an endocrine function.
glucagon Which is produced by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets, is secreted in response to low blood sugar.
insulin Is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high blood sugar.
hyperglycemia Is an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood.
hyperinsulinism Is a condition marked by excessive secretion of insulin that produces hypoglycemia.
hypoglycemia Is an abnormally low concentration of glucose(sugar) in the blood.
insulinoma Is a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia.
pancreatalgia Means pain in the pancreas.
pancreatitis Is an inflammation of the pancreas.
diabetes mellitus Is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
type 1 diabetes Was previously known as INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS(IDDM)/JUVENILE DIABETES, is and autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder.
type 2 diabetes Was previously known as NONINSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS(NIDDM)/ADULT-ONSET DIABETES, is an insulin resistance disorder.
gestational diabetes mellitus also known as GDM, is the form of diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies.
fasting blood sugar(FBS) Measures the glucose(blood sugar) levels after the patient has not eation for 8 to 12 hours.
glucose tolerance test(GTT) Is used to confirm diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia(low blood sugar).
fingerstick blood sugar monitoring test Is performed at least once daily to determine how much insulin or other medicatons are required.
hemolobin A1c testing(HgA1c) Also known as HbA1C/GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN TESTING(GHb), uses blood ests that measure the average blood glucose level over the previous three to four months.
glycohemoglobin(GHb) Forms when glucose in the blood attaches to the hemoglobin.
fructosamine test Measures average glucose levels over the past three weeks. Detects changes more rapidly tha the HgA1c test.
hypoglycemia Is very low blood sugar, is caused by not eating at the proper time or by not adjusting medications properly.
hyperglycemia Is very high blood sugar, is also known as DIABETIC KETACIDOSIS, is and acute, life-threatening complication is caused by a severe insulin defieciency.
heart disease Occurs because excess blood sugar makes the walls of the blood vessels sticky. This stickiness encourages atherosclerosis(plaque buildup) within these vessels that slows or blocks the normal flow of blood.
kidney disease May lead to renal failure due to blood vessel damage that reduces blood flow through the kidneys.
peripheral neuropathy Is damage to the nerves of the hands and feet. This can cause either extreme sensitivitiy or numbness.
diabetic retinopathy(DR) Is a complication of diabetes that causes damage to the retina of the eye.
macular edema Fluids from blood vessels leaking into the eye cause the macula to swell.
proliferative retinopathy Fragile new blood vessels form and break, clouding vision and damaging the retina.
thymus Is located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity. Is posterior to the sternum and slightly superior to the heart. It also means relationship to the soul or emotions.
thymosin Stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cell of the immune system.
thymitis Is an inflammation of the thymus gland.
thymoma Is a usually benign tumor derived from the tissue of the thymus.
thymectomy Is the surgical removal of the thymus gland.
pineal gland Is located in the central portion of the brain. Is also known to influence the sleep-wakefulness cycle.
melatonin Influences the sleep and wakefulness portions of the circadian cycle.
pinealopathy is any disorder of the pineal gland.
pinealectomy Is the surgical removal of the pineal body.
gonands Which are ovaries in females and testicles in males, are the gamete-producing glands.
gamete Is a reproductive cell. The sperm in the male, and ova(eggs) in the female.
gonadotropic hormone Also known as GONADOTROPIN, is any hormone that stimulates the gonads.
testostertone Which is secreted by the testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex charateristics.
estrogen Is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and in regulation of the menstrual cycle.
progesterone Is the hormone released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary.
placenta Is an organ formed during pregnancy that allows the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and developing child during pregnancy.
human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) Is the hormone secreted by the placenta during pregnancy.
hypergonadism Is the conditon of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands.
hypogonadism Is the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands.
gynecomastia Is the condition of excessive mammary development in the male.
Created by: caprinag1994