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Chapter two- the chemical level of organization

matter anything that occupies space and has mass
energy the ability to do work in the form of potential and kinetic energy
potential energy stored energy
kinetic energy movement
chemical energy nuclear energy and the breaking of ATP bonds to create energy
electrical energy vision
mechanical energy hydraulic machines and chewing food
radiant energy from the sun
adenosine triphosphate high energy compound used by all cells. Energy is realsed by breaking high-energy phosphate bonds
forms of heat thermal, radiation, kinetic, molecular movement
elements fundamental units of matter
carbon 18.5%
oxygen 65%
hydrogen 9.5%
nitrogen 3.3%
magnesium thyroid hormone production
sodium and potassium important in nerve cell conditions
calcium found as salt in bones and teeth
phosphorous calcium absorption
protons the positively charged particles of the atom
neutrons the neutral particles of the atom
electrons have a negative charge and make up the outer shell of the atom, known as the orbital
the nucleus the center of the atom which is made up of neutrons and protons
atomic number the number of protons in an atom
mass number the number of protons and neutrons
neutrons weigh 1.009 daltons
protons weigh 1.007 daltons
electrons and bonding electrons occupy energy levels called electron shells, electrons closest to the nucleus are strongly attached, each shell has distict properties, shells closest to the nucleus fill first
electron energy rule the greater the distance the electron exists from the shell, the more energy it has
isotopes atoms of the same elements that have different numbers of neutrons
valence electrons electrons in the outer shell
molecule two or more like atoms that combine chemically
compound two or more different atoms combined chemically
reactive elements calence shells are not full and are unstable
inert elements have complete valence shells and are stable
conding atoms will transfer or share valence electrons until their outer shell becomes more stable
ionic bonding electrons are transferred to other elements
anions negatively charged
cations positively charged
covalent bonding atoms share electrons
single covalent bonds share 1 electron
double covalent bonds share 2 electrons
hydrogen bonding bonds that form between hydrogen atoms, the weakest of chemical bonds, hydrogen is attracted to the negative portion of polar molecules
polarity an unequal sharing of electrons that causes a slight negative and positivie charge on the different ends of a molecule
chemical reaction a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals. chemical reactions always involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms together
reactants the elements of compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
products the elements of compounds produced by a chemical reaction
endergonic reactions use energy
exergonic reactions release energy
metabolites all the compounds that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside the body
enzymes proteins that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms by lowering the activation energy. enzymes act as catalysts that increase only the rate of chemical reactions
synthesesi (anabolic) reaction A+B-> AB
decomposition (catabolic) reaction AB->A+B
exchange reactions AB+CD-> AD+BC
organic compounds contains carbon that forms 4 bonds
inorganic compounds lack carbon and tend to be simpler compounds
water universal solvent of life, 82% of blood, 65% body weight, 60% volume of cells, most abundant inorganic compound
carbond most cells are composed of carbon based compounds
acids release hydrogen ions in solution
bases release hydrogen ions in solution
neutralization reaction acids and bases react to form water and salt
electrolytes soluble inorganic compounds whose ions conduct an electrical current in water
4 types of organic compounds carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids
carbohydrates made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
monosaccharids simple sugars
disaccharides formed when two monosaccharides link together
polysaccharides composed of 3 of more joined monosaccharides
isomers compounds with the same chemical formula by different structures
lipids large nonpolar molecules that do not dissolve in water and composed largely of carcon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen
roles of lipids act as insulators, regulate sterouds to help regulare other bodily functions, help keep the structure of cell membranes, store energy, provides the body with vitamins that are necessary for many functions
nucleic acids contain the genetic information of all living things
purines composed of a double ring structure-adenine and guanine
pyrimidines composed of a single ring-cytosine and thymine
proteins account for 50% of the dry weight of cells, 20%
Amino Acids 20 different amino acids
amino acids are composed of 3 parts 1. Amino group NH3 2. R group 3. Caboxyl group
Created by: swimifishi