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Chapter one-introduction and organ systems

Anatomy The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts--comes from the greek word meaning "cutting open"
Gross Anatomy the study of large, easily observable structures without the aid of a microscope
microscopic anatomy the study of very small structures with the aid of a microscope
surface anatomy the study of general form and superficial markings
physiology the study of the function of structures--the study of how the body and its parts work or function
pathological physiology changes in function resulting from disease
excercise physiology studies physiological adjustments to exercise
11 systems of the body integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, reproductive, lymphatic, respiratory
integumentary system skin-forms the external covering of the body, protects deeper tissues, synthesizes vitamin D, location of nerve receptors
skeletal system protects and supports body organs, provides muscle attachment for movement, stores minerals
muscular system 760 muscles, allows locomotion, maintains posture, produces heat
nervous system most complex system, fast acting control system, responds to internal and external short term changes, activates muscles and glands
endocrine system sevretes regulatory hormones for growth reproduction and metabolism directly into the blood stream, slow moving system
cardiovascular system transports materials in the body via blood pumped by the heart, transports oxygen carbon dioxide nutrients and wasts
digestive system breaks down food, allows for nutrients to be absorbed into the blood stream, eliminates indigestible material
urinary system eliminates nitrogenous waste, maintains acid-base balance, regulates materials such as water electrolytes and salts
reproductive system production of offspring, embryology:the study of early developmental processes
lymphatic system protects against infection, monitors the amount of blood in circulation
respiratory system filters air, detects smell, conducts the passageway of aid, traps mucus, and site of gas exchange
pathology study of disease
maintaining life movement, locomotion, responsiceness, digestion
metabolism chemical reactions that take place within the body that aid in the production of energy and maintain body structures
excretion elimination of waste from metabolic reactions
reproduction production of a future generation
growth increasing of cell number and size
nutrients provide the chemicals for energy and cell building
oxygen required for chemical reactions
water 60-80% of body weight is water
homestasis maintenance of a stable internal environment or a dynamic state of equilibrium
homeostasis imbalance a distrubance in homeostasis or disease
infection colonization of pathological organisms
brain recieves and analyzes information and determines the set point of a homeostatic disturbance
positive feedback stops the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
negative feedback increases the original stimulus to push the variable further, labor, blood clot
anatomical position standing upright in the verical position, legs and feet parallel, arms hanging by sides, palms and face are firected forward, thumbs lateral
supine lying face up with palms up
prone lying face down with palms down
hypo too little
hyper too much
bilateral symmetry equal right and left sides
parassagital symmetry unequal left and right sides-not centered
cells basic unit of structure and function in living things that may seve a specific function w/in organisms
tissues made of cells that are similar in structure and function and work together to perform a specific activity
prgans made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity
organ system groups of two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function for the organism
organisms entire living things that can carry out all basic life processes.
Created by: swimifishi