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Superficial Face Lab

Occipitofrontalis M. (front belly) Origin:Epicranial aponeurosis. Innervation: CN XII, Temporal Branch. Action:Elevates eyebrows, wrinkles brow (Suprise or curiosity).
Orbicularis Oculi M. (has Orbital and Palpebral parts) Innervation: CN XII, Temproal Branch (Orbital) and Zygomatic Branch (palpebral). Action: Closes eyelids (Orbital part winks/closes tightly).
Levator Labii Superioris M. Goes from infra-orbital margin to superior lip. Innvervation: CN XII, Buccal Branch. Action: Elevate/retract and evert upper lip (showing sadness). **Dilates mouth
Zygomaticus Major M. From lateral zygomatic bone to angle of lip. Innervation: CN XII, Buccal Branch. Action: elevates labial commissure (Bilaterally: smile)(Unilaterally: sneer) **Dilates mouth
Buccinator M From Mandible to Angle of mouth. Innervation: CNXII, Buccal Branch. Action: Presses check against molar teeth, resists distention (when blowing)
Zygomaticus Minor M. From Anterior zygomatic bone to skin of upper lip. Innervation: CN XII, Buccal Branch. Action: Retract/elevate and evert upper lip (sadness). **Same as Levator Labii superioris
Levator Anguli Oris M. From infra-orbital maxilla to angle of mouth. Innervation: CN XII, Buccal Branch. Action: Widens the oral fissure (grinning/grimacing). **Dilator of mouth
Orbicularis Oris M. Oral Sphincter. Innervation: CN XII, Buccal Branch. Action: Closes oral fissure, compresses and protrudes lips (kissing), resists distention (when blowing).
Depressor Anguli Oris M. From Anterolateral base of mandible to angle of mouth. Innervation: CN XII, Marginal Mandibular Branch. Action: Depress labial commissure bilaterally to frown
Depressor Labii Inferioris M. From Platysma/Anterolateral mandible to Skin of lower lip. Innervation: CN XII, Marginal Manibular Branch. Action: Retracts/depresses and everts lower lip (pouting, sadness). **Dilator of mouth
Temporalis M. From floor of temporal fossa to tip of coronoid process. Innervation: CN V3 (Deep temporal branch). Action: Elevates mandible posteriorly/ closes jaw.
Masseter M. From the Maxillary Process of zygomatic arch to the angle/ lateral ramus of mandible. Innervation: CN V3 (Masseteric N). Action: Elevates mandible/ closes jaw.
Medial pterygoid M. Two headed muscle from lateral pterygoid plate and maxillary tuberosity to Medial surface of ramus of mandible. Innervation: CN V3 (Medial Pterygoid N). Action: synergist with masseter/ protrusion of jaw.
Lateral pterygoid M. Origin: 1.lateral pterygoid plate, 2.infratemporal surface Insertion: TMJ, mandibular condyle. Innervation: CN V3 (lateral pterygoid N). Action: Protracts mandible/depresses chin
Cruciate ligament of the Atlas 1.Transverse Ligament of the Atlas. 2.Superior Longitudinal Band. 3.Inferior Longitudinal Band
Alar Ligaments Extend from the sides of the Dens to the lateral margins of the Foramen Magnum. **Prevent excessive rotation
Transverse ligament of the Atlas Extends from the tubercles of the lateral masses of C1 around the Dens of the Axis. Helps to protect the spinal cord during rotation. (it is in the vertebral foramen of the atlas. **Damage to this ligament will lead to Quadriplegic
Tectorial Memembrane Strong, superior continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Broadens and passes posteriorly over the median atlanto-axial joint. Connects C2 to Foramen Magnun. Covers all other ligaments.
Trigeminal N Originates on lateral surface of the pons of the midbrain. Has both motor and sensory roots. It is the sensory N of the face and motor nerve of mastication and several small muscles.
Mentalis M. Origin: Body of mandible. Insertion: skin of chin. Innervation: CN VII Mandibular branch. Action: Elevates and protrudes lower lip (showing doubt).
Supraorbital N (Opthalmic division of trigeminal N) Originates in the superior orbit off the Frontal N (in the middle of the orbit roof). Emerges from the supraorbital foramen and ascends onto forehead. Innerv: Mucosa of frontal sinus, skin and conjunctiva of middle/superior eyelid, anterolateral forehead
Infraorbital N (Maxillary division of trigeminal N) Exits the infraorbital foramen and trifricates into: 1.Lateral Nasal. 2.Superior Labial. 3.Inferior Palpebral.
Auriculotemporal N (Mandibular division of trigeminal N) Originates in the infratemporal fossa, moving superior to parotid and ascending poserior to TMJ. Innervates the auricle, anterior ear, and skin of 2/3 of temporal region.
Mental N (Mandibular division of trigeminal N) The terminal nerve of the inferior alveolar N. Exits from the Mandible through the mental foramen. Innervates the skin and mucosa of the chin and lower lip.
Temporal Branch of Facial N Emerges from the superior border of the parotid gland and crosses the zygomatic arch. Innervates: Auricircularis superior, Auricircularis Anterior, Occipitofrontalis, superior orbicularis oculi.
Zygomatic Branch of Facial N Emerges from the Anterior/superior parotid gland and passes inferiorly to the eye. Supplies the inferior part of of orbicularis oculi,
Buccal Branch of the Facial N Emerges anteriorly from the parotid gland over the maxilla. It passes external to buccinator medially across maxilla. Innervates: buccinator, levator labi superioris, superior fibers of orbicularis oris,Zygomaticus major & minor, levator anguli oris.
Mandibular Branch of the Facial N Emerges inferior/anterior from parotid gland and traverses the inferior mandible medially deep to platysma. Innervates: Risorius, depressor anguli oris, depressor labi inferioris, and mentalis.
Cervical Branch of the Facial N Passes inferiorly from inferior border of parotid gland. Runs posterior to mandible to innervate platysma.
Prevertebral fascia fascia covering the vertebrae and the associated muscles (Longus capitus/colli)
Retropharyngeal space the space between the Buccopharyngeal fascia associated with the esophagus and the prevertebral fascia surrounding the vertebrae. **Very important site for spread of infection.
Parotid Duct The duct runs from the gland, across the masseter, around the anterior boundary of the muscle, and pierces the buccinator to open into the oral cavity at the 2nd upper molar
Retromandibular V. Formed anterior to ear by superficial temporal v and maxillary v. descends down through the parotid gland to join up with the facial vein and form the external jugular vein.
Fluid spread in the deep face Any infection of the superficial face can spread readily if it is able to enter the space deep to the facial muscles. **Also means that fluid like lymph can be easily moved
Fracure of the Dens Forceful flexion and extension of the neck region places extraordinary stress on the dens. A fracture only produces symptoms if the dens moves posteriorly which may impenge the spinal cord.
2 muscles originating off the Infra-orbital margin 1.Levator Labii superioris. 2.Levator anguli oris
2 main muscles involved in kissing ;) 1.Buccinator. 2.Orbicularis Oris.
Created by: WeeG



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