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Anatomy chapter

chapter 7 and 9

What is the organization of the Nervous System Structural Classification (its structures) Functional Classification (activities)
What is the STRUCTURAL classification of the nervous system all nervous system organs and has two subdivisions
What are the two subdivisions of the structural classifications 1. central nervous system (CNS) 2. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
what does the central nervous system (CNS) consist of brain and spinal cord which occupy the dorsal body cavity and act as the command center of the nervous
what does the peripheral nervous system consist of the parts of the system outside of the CNS mainly the brain and spinal cord
What does the spinal nerve do carries impulses to and from the spinal cord
What does the cranial nerve do carry impulses to and from the brain they serve as communication lines
What is the functional classification only involves the PNS structure, which is divided into two subdivisions
What are the two functional divisions SENSORY or afferent division MOTOR or efferent division
what is the role of the SENSORY or afferent division (functional subdivision)has two parts somatic/visceral nerve fibers that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors located in different parts of the body informing the CNS of events both inside and outside of the body
What do somatic SENSORY fibers do deliver impulses from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints
What do visceral SENSORY fibers do transmit impulses from the visceral organs
What is the role of the MOTOR or efferent division (has 2 subdivisions) carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs, the muscles and glands. They effect a motor response
What are the two MOTOR (efferent) subdivisions Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system
What is the role of the Somatic nervous system (motor subdivision) allows us to consciously or voluntarily control our skeletal muscles (voluntary nervous system)
What is the role of the Autonomic nervous system (has two subdivisions) regulates events that are automatic or involuntary such as cardiac muscles and glands (involuntary NS)
What does the sympathetic part of the involuntary nervous system do
What does the parasympathetic part of the involuntary nervous system do?
the nervous system acts as a coordinated unit, both structurally and functionally. subdivisions only for convenience
What are neurons respond to stimuli - have irritability transmit signals - have conductivity
Neurons with no myelin sheaths transmit what slower than those with the myelin sheaths messages
Nuerons consist of what cell body processes
cell body contains what almost all organelles
What are the 2 arm like processes that reach through the body and transmit messages dendrites - send info toward the cell body (can have many) Axan - sends info away from the cell body (can have 1)
How many types of ganglia are there and name them Functional classification Afferent neurons Association neurons structural classification
Functional classifications - one of five ganglia based on where messages are sent
Afferent neurons - one of five ganglia send messages TO the CNS
Efferent neurons - one of five ganglia send messages FROM the CNS
Association neurons - one of five ganglia connect afferent and efferent neurons
Structural classification based on # of processes leaving cell body:Multi polar neuron many processes, Bipolar 2 processes, Unipolar 1 process (axon only)
How do they transmit messages neurons are polarized - move positive charge outside then in stimuli will depolarize neuron which causes it to transmit a signal repolarization must occur before another message may be sent
Neurons w/out myelin neurons are stimulate through the cell membrane along all of the neuron stimulus causes na+ to enter the cell to set off impulses to repolarize, na+ must be pumped back out. see pg. 232
neurons with myelin stimuli reach neurons only at the nodes (ends of nerves) *impulses travels down axon toward synapse *Neurotransmitters are received toward receiving neuron * Neurontransmitters bind to receptors on the next -> cause na+to enter neuron. pg. 233
reflexes rapid, perceptible, involuntary responses always occur along the same neural pathway called a reflex arc
what are the two kinds of reflexes skeletal muscles called somatic smooth muscles called autonomic
what are the parts of the reflex arc sensory receptor afferent neuron ( pg 234) integration center efferent neuron effector organ
How many regions does the brain have 4
Name the 4 major regions of the brain cerebrum, diencephaton, brain stem, cerebellum
what is the largest part of the brain the cerebrum (covers almost all the diencephaton, brain stem and cerebellum)
what is divided into 2 cerebral hemispheres the cerebrum
what does the cerebrum have many of gyri (ridges), sulci (shallow grooves) and fissures (deep organs)
How many lobes does the cerebrum have 4
Name the 4 lobes of the cerebrum frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
What is the role of the frontal lobe controls your personality, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, intuition, judgement, social behavior
What is the role of the parietal lobe responsible for information processing, pain, and touch, perception, spatial orientation, speech, visual perception
What is the role of the occipital lobe responsible for visual processing centers of the brain (movement, color, depth)
Where is the temporal lobe located anterior to the occipital lobe and lateral to the mid-line
What is the role of the temporal lobe involved in hearing, memory, speech, language and emotional responses.
Where is the occipital located located most posterior of the brain
Where is the parietal lobe located superior to the occipital lobe and posterior to the frontal lobe.
where is the frontal lobe located most anterior and superior lobe of the brain.
what is the role of the diencephalon thalamus-relays sensory impulses (gives a crude recognition of pleasant or unpleasant sensations
Where is the diencephalon located atop the brain stem and enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres
What is the role of the hypothalamus autonomic nervous center (body temp, water balance, metabolism)also the center for many drives and emotions
where is the hypothalamus located makes up the floor of the diencephalon.
What is the role of the epithalamus (brain stem) mid-brain helps convey messages up and down, pons help control breathing, medulla oblongata help control heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, vomiting
What is the role of the reticular formation helps with consciousness
Where is the reticular formation located extended along all of the brain stem
what is the cerebellum made up of 2 hemispheres
What is the role of the cerebellum controls skeletal muscle activity balance and equilibrium-allows you to operate on auto pilot
what protects the nervous system bone meninges watery cushion blood
what is the bones role in protecting the nervous system skull and vertebrae encase brain and spinal cord
what is the meninges role in protecting the nervous system 3 connective tissues membrane that line the skull
what is the water cushions role in protecting the nervous system cerebrospinal fluid 1. fluid is made from blood plasma 2. is constantly being circulated
what is the bloods role in protecting the nervous system brain barrier-capillaries supplying nutrients to the brain are the least permeable in the body
what passes through the brain barrier easily water, glucose, and amino acids
what is blocked from passing through the brain barrier wastes, toxins, proteins, and most drugs are blocked.
Brain stem **continuation of the brain stem part of the CNS, collection of neurons bundled together to form a cylindrical cord about 17 inches long (ends just below the ribs), composed of gray matter surrounded by white matter (page 247-248)
Structures of the spinal cord
nervous tissue made up of 2 principal types of cells
what are the two types of nervous tissue cells supporting cells and neurons
what is another name for supporting cells neuroglia (nerve glue)
what does neuroglia (glia/glial)do support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons
what are the CNS glial (nerve glue) astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes
what is the role of the the astrocytes glial (CNS glial) Form a living barrier between capillaries and neurons. Help protect the neurons from harmful substances that might be in the blood. Capture excess ions & recapturing released neurotransmitters, help control chemical environment in the brain
what do astrocytes look like (CNS glial) star shaped cells that make up 1/2 of the neural tissue. Numerous projections have swollen ends that cling to neurons, bracing them and anchoring them to their nutrient supply lines, the blood capillaries
what is the role of microglia (CNS glial) dispose of debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria
what do microglia look like (CNS glial) spider like phagocytes
What is the role of Ependymal cells (CNS glial) Line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord. Cilia helps to circulate the cerebropsinal fluid that fills the cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS
What is the role of the Oligodendrocytes (CNS glial) wrap their flat extensions around the nerve fibers, producing fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths.
What don't Glial do that neurons do (CNS glial) they are not able to transmit nerve impulses
Glial never lose their ability to divide however most neurons do (CNS glial) since the never lost their ability to divide most brain tumors are glimoas (formed by glial cells, neuroglia)
PNS supporting cells (glial ?) Schwann cells Satellite cells
What do Schwann cells do (PNS) form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in the PNS
What do Satellite cells do act as protective cushioning cells
Created by: Hootlc2005



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