Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

FINAL Chap 9-12

End of chapter terms, 9-12

acute tubular necrosis Damage to the renal tubules due to the presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia. Results in oliguria.
afferent arteriole Arteriole that carries blood into the glomerulus.
albumin A protein that is normally found circulating in the bloodstream. It is abnormal for albumin to be in the urine.
antibiotic Used to treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract.
antispasmodic Medication to prevent or reduce bladder muscle spasms.
anuria complete suppression of urine formed by the kidneys and a complete lack of urine excretion.
azotemia Accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream. Occurs when the kidney fails to filter these wastes from the blood.
bacteriuria bacteria in the urine
bladder cancer Cancerous tumor that arises from the cells lining the bladder; major sign is hematuria.
bladder neck obstruction Blockage of the bladder outlet. Often caused by an enlarged prostate gland in males.
blood urea nitrogen Blood test to measure kidney function by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that is in the blood.
Bowman’s capsule Also called the glomerular capsule. Part of the renal corpuscle. It's a double-walled cup-like structure that encircles the glomerulus. Waste products filtered from the blood enter Bowman's capsule as glomerular filtrate.
calculus Stone formed within an organ by an accumulation of mineral salts. Found in the kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Plural is calculi.
calyx A duct that connects the renal papilla to the renal pelvis. Urine flows from the collecting tubule through the calyx and into the renal pelvis.
catheter Flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. Most commonly used to refer to a tube threaded through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine.
catheterization Insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye.
clean catch specimen Urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a urine sample in midstream (halfway through urination process) to minimize contamination from the genitalia.
collecting tubule A portion of the renal tubule.
cortex The outer layer of an organ. In the endocrine system, if refers to the outer layer of the adrenal glands.
creatinine clearance Test of kidney function.Creatinine is a waste product cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys.For this test, urine is collected for 24 hrs, & the amount of creatinine in the urine is compared to the amount of creatinine that remains in the bloodstream
cystalgia bladder pain
cystectomy removal of the bladder
cystic pertaining to the bladder
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
cystocele Hernia or protrusion of the urinary bladder into the wall of the vagina.
cystogram record of the bladder
cystography Process of instilling a contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on x-ray.
cystolith bladder stone
cystopexy surgical fixation of the bladder
cystoplasty surgical repair of the bladder
cystorrhagia rapid bleeding from the bladder
cystoscope instrument used to visually examine the bladder
cystoscopy(cysto) Visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cystoscope.
cystostomy create a new opening into the bladder
cystotomy incision into the bladder
diabetic nephropathy Accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to the chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus.
distal convoluted tubule A portion of the renal tubule.
diuresis Increased formation and secretion of urine.
diuretic Increases the excretion of urine, which promotes loss of water & salt from the body. Can help lower blood pressure, so these drugs are used to treat hypertension. Potassium in the body may by depleted w/continued use of diuretics.
dysuria condition of difficult or painful urination
efferent arteriole Arteriole that carries blood away from the glomerulus.
enuresis Involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should’ve been established (usually by age 5). Nocturnal enuresis refers to bed-wetting at night.
excretory urography(EU) Injecting dye into the bloodstream and then taking an x-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye.
external sphincter Ring of voluntary muscle that controls the emptying of urine from the bladder.
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) Use of ultrasound waves to break up stones. Process does not require invasive surgery
filtration First stage of urine production during which waste products are filtered from the blood.
frequency Greater-than-normal occurrence in the urge to urinate, without an increase in the total daily volume of urine. Frequency is an indication of inflammation of the bladder or urethra.
genitourinary system Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs.
glomerular capsule Also called Bowman's capsule.
glomerular filtrate The product of the filtration stage of urine production. Water, electrolytes, nutrients, wastes, and toxins that are filtered from blood passing through the glomerulus. The filtrate enters Bowman's capsule.
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the kidney (primarily of the glomerulus). Since the glomerular membrane is inflamed. It becomes more permeable & will allow protein & blood cells to enter the filtrate. Results in protein in the urine (proteinuria) & hematuria.
glomerulus Ball of capillaries encased by Bowman's capsule. In the filtration stage of urine production, wastes filtered from the blood leave the glomerulus capillaries & enter Bowman's capsule.
glycosuria condition of sugar in the urine
hematuria condition of blood in the urine
hemodialysis(HD) Use of an artificial kidney machine that filters blood of a person to remove waste products. Use of this technique in patients who have defective kidneys is lifesaving.
hesitancy Decrease in the force of the urine stream, often with difficulty initiating the flow. It’s often a symptom of a blockage along the urethra, such as an enlarged prostrate gland.
hydronephrosis Distention of the renal pelvis due to urine collecting in the kidney; often a result of the obstruction of a ureter.
internal sphincter Ring of involuntary muscle that keeps urine within the bladder.
interstitial cystitis Disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder. Most commonly seen in middle aged women
intravenous pyelogram(IVP) Injecting a contrast material into a vein and then taking an x-ray to visualize the renal pelvis.
ketonuria ketones in the urine
kidneys Located in the lumbar region of the back behind the parietal peritoneum. They are under the muscles of the back, just above the waist. The kidneys have a concave area that gives them a bean-shaped appearance, and it's center of is called the hilum.
kidneys, ureters, bladder(KUB) X-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating that kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye. Also called a flat-plate abdomen.
lithotomy incision to remove a stone
lithotripsy surgical crushing of a stone
loop of Henle A portion of the renal tubule.
meatotomy Incision into the meatus in order to enlarge the opening of the urethra.
medulla The central area of an organ. In the endocrine system it refers to the adrenal medulla.
micturition Another term for urination.
nephrectomy removal of a kidney
Nephritic syndrome (NS) Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in the urine, proteinuria, and the corresponding decrease in protein in the bloodstream.
nephritis kidney inflammation
nephrogram xray of a kidney
nephrolith kidney stone
nephrolithiasis condition of kidney stonesn
nephrolithotomy Surgical incision to directly remove stones from the kidney.
nephrologist specialist in the kidney
nephrology Branch of medicine involved in Dx & Tx diseases and disorders of the kidney. Physician is nephrologist.
nephroma kidney tumor
nephromalacia softening of the kidney
nephromegaly enlarged kidney
nephron The functional or working unit of the kidney that filters the blood & produces the urine. There are more than 1 million nephrons in an adult kidney. Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle & the renal tubules.
nephropathy kidney disease
nephropexy surgical fixation of kidney
nephroptosis drooping kidney. Also called a floating kidney.
nephrosclerosis hardening of the kidney
nephrosis abnormal kidney condition
nephrostomy create a new opening into the kidney
nephrotic syndrome Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in the urine, proteinuria, and the corresponding decrease in protein in the bloodstream.
nephrotomy incision into a kidney
neurogenic bladder loss of nervous control that leads to retention; may be caused by spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis.
nitrogenous wastes Waste products that contain nitrogen. These products, such as ammonia and urea, are produced during protein metabolism.
nocturia condition of frequent night time urination
oliguria condition of scanty amount of urine
peritoneal dialysis Removal of toxic waste substances from the body by placing warm chemically balanced solutions into the peritoneal cavity. Wastes are filtered out of the blood across the peritoneum. Used in treating renal failure and certain poisonings.
peritubular capillaries Capillary bed surrounding the renal tubules.
polycystic kidneys Formulation of multiple cysts within the kidney tissue. Results in the destruction of normal kidney tissue and uremia.
polyuria condition of too much urine
proteinuria protein in the urine
proximal convoluted tubule A portion of the renal tubule.
pyelitis renal pelvis inflammation
pyelogram xray record of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis Inflammation of renal pelvis & kidney.Common type of kidney disease.May result from a lower UTI that moved to the kidney via the ureters.There may be large quantities of white blood cells & bacteria in the urine.Can occur w/cystitis.
pyeloplasty surgical repair of renal pelvis
pyuria condition of pus in the urine
reabsorption Second phase of urine production; substances needed by the body are reabsorbed as the filtrate passes through the kidney tubules.
renal pertaining to the kidney
renal artery Artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and carries blood to the nephrons of the kidney.
renal cell carcinoma cancerous tumor that arises from kidney tubule cells.
renal colic Pain caused by a kidney stone. Can be excruciating and generally requires medical treatment.
renal corpuscle The Bowman's capsule.
renal failure Inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood resulting in uremia. May be acute or chronic. Major reason for a patient being placed on dialysis.
renal papilla Tip of a renal pyramid.
renal pelvis Large collecting site for urine within the kidney. Collects urine from each calyx. Urine leaves the renal pelvis via the ureter.
renal pyramid Triangular-shaped region of the renal medulla.
renal transplant Surgical placement of a donor kidney.
renal tubule Network to tubes found in a nephron. It consists of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal tubule, and the collecting tubule. The reabsorption and secretion stages of urine production occur within the renal tubule.
renal vein Vein that carries blood away from the kidneys.
retrograde pyelogram(RP) Diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.
retroperitoneal Pertaining to behind the peritoneum. Used to describe the position of the kidneys, which is outside of the peritoneal sac alongside the spine.
rugae The prominent folds in the mucosa of the stomach. They smooth out and almost disappear allowing the stomach to expand when it is full of food.
secretion Third phase of urine production; additional waste products are added to the filtrate as it passes through the kidney tubules.
specific gravity Characteristic of urine that indicates the amount of dissolved substances in urine.
stricture Narrowing of a passageway in the urinary system.
uremia accumulation of waste products (especially nitrogenous) in the bloodstream. Associated with renal failure.
ureteral pertaining to the ureter
ureterectasis ureter dilation
ureterolith ureter stone
ureterostenosis narrowing of a ureter
ureters Organs in the urinary system that transport urine from the kidney to the bladder.
urethra The tube that leads from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. In the male it is also used by the reproductive system to release semen.
urethral pertaining to the urethra
urethralgia urethra pain
urethritis urethra inflammation
urethrorrhagia rapid bleeding from the urethra
urethroscope instrument to visually examine the urethra
urethrostenosis narrowing of the urethra
urgency Feeling the need to urinate immediately.
urinalysis Laboratory test that consists of the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of the urine.
urinary pertaining to urine
urinary bladder Organ in the urinary system that stores urine.
urinary incontinence Involuntary release of urine. In some patients indwelling catheter is inserted into the bladder for continuous urine drainage.
urinary meatus The external opening of the urethra.
urinary retention inability to fully empty the bladder. Often indicates a blockage in the urethra.
urinary tract infection Infection, usually from bacteria, of any organ of the urinary system. Most often begins with cystitis & may ascend into the ureters & kidneys. Most common in women because of their shorter urethra.
urination The release of urine from the urinary bladder
urine It is the fluid that remains in the urinary system following the three stages of urine production: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
urine culture and sensitivity(C&S) Laboratory test of the urine for bacterial infection. Attempt to grow bacteria on a culture medium in order to identify it and determine which antibiotics it is sensitive to.
urinometer instrument to measure urine
urologist specialist in urine
urology Branch of medicine involved in the Dx and Tx of diseases and disorders of the urinary system (and male reproductive system). Physician is a urologist.
voiding cystourethrography X-ray taken to visualize the urethra while the patient is voiding after a contrast dye has been placed in the bladder.
voiding urination.
Wilm’s tumor Malignant kidney tumor found most often in children.
abortifacient medication that terminates a pregnancy.
abruptio placentae emergency condition in which the placenta tears away from the uterine wall prior to delivery of the infant. Requires immediate delivery of the baby.
amenorrhea no menstrual flow
amniocentesis puncturing of the amniotic sac using a needle & syringe to withdraw amniotic fluid for testing. Can assist in determining fetal maturity, development, & genetic disorders.
amnion The inner of two membranous sacs surrounding the fetus. The amniotic sac contains amniotic fluid in which the baby floats.
amniorrhea flow of fluid from amnion
amniotic pertaining to the amnion
amniotic fluid The fluid inside the amniotic sac.
amniotomy incision into amnion
androgen male producing
androgen therapy Replacement male hormones to treat patients who produce insufficient hormone naturally.
andropathy male disease
anorchism condition of no testes
anteflexion While the uterus is normally in this position, an exaggeration of the forward bend of the uterus is abnormal. The forward bend is near the neck of the uterus. The position of cervix, or opening of the uterus, remains normal.
antepartum before birth
antiprostatic agents Medications to treat early cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy; may prevent surgery for mild cases.
Apgar score Evaluation of a neonate’s adjustment to the outside world. Observes color, heart rate, muscle tone, respiratory rate, & response to stimulus at 1 min and 5 min after birth.
areola The pigmented area round the nipple of the breast.
aspermia condition of no sperm
atresia congenital lack of a normal body opening
balanitis inflammation of the glans penis
balanoplasty surgical repair of glans penis
balanorrhea discharge from glans penis
barrier contraception prevention of pregnancy using a device to prevent sperm from meeting an ovum. Examples include condoms, diaphragms, & cervical caps.
Bartholin’s glands Glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete mucus for vaginal lubrication.
benign prostatic hypertrophy Enlargement of the prostate gland commonly seen in males over 50.
breast cancer malignant tumor of the breast. Usually forms in the milk-producing gland tissue or lining of the milk ducts.
breasts Milk-producing glands to provide nutrition for newborn. Also called mammary glands.
breech presentation Placement of the fetus in which the buttocks or feet are presented first for delivery rather than the head.
bulbourethral gland Also called Cowper's gland. These two small male reproductive system glands are located on either side of the urethra just distal to the prostate. The secretion from these glands neutralizes the acidity in the urethra and the vagina.
candidiasis Yeast infection of the skin and mucus membranes that can result in white plaques of the tongue and vagina
castration Excision of the testicles in the male or the ovaries in the female.
cervical biopsy taking a sample of tissue from the cervix to test for the presence of cancer cells.
cervical cancer Malignant growth of the cervix. Some cases are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted virus.It’s difficult to treat & causes 5% of cancer deaths in women.Pap smear tests have helped detect it early.
cervical pertaining to the cervix
cervicectomy removal of cervix
cervix The narrow, distal portion of the uterus that joins to the vagina.
cesarean section (CS, C-section) surgical delivery of a baby through an incision into the abdominal & uterine walls. Legend has it that Julius Caesar was the first person born by this method
chancroid Highly infectious nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer.
chlamydia Parasitic microorganism causing genital infections in males and females; can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females & eventual infertility.
chorion The outer of two membranous sacs surrounding the fetus. It helps to form the placenta.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Removal of a small piece of the chorion for genetic analysis. May be done at an earlier stage of pregnancy than amniocentesis.
chorionic pertaining to the chorion
circumcision Surgical removal of the end of the prepuce or foreskin of the penis. Generally performed on the newborn male at the request of the parents. The primary reason is for ease of hygiene. Circumcision is also a ritual practice in some religions.
clitoris A small organ containing erectile tissue that is covered by the labia minora. It contains sensitive tissue that is aroused during sexual stimulation and is similar to the penis in the male.
colostrum A thin fluid first secreted by the breast after delivery; it does not contain much protein, but is rich in antibodies.
coloposcopy examination of vagina using an instrument called a colposcope.
colposcope instrument to view inside vagina
conception Fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.
conization surgical removal of a core of cervical tissue. Also refers to partial removal of the cervix.
corpus The body or central portion of the uterus.
Cowper’s glands Also called bulbourethral gland. These two small male reproductive system glands are located on either side of the urethra just distal to the prostate. The secretion from these glands neutralizes the acidity in the urethra & vagina.
crowning When the head of the baby is visible through the vaginal opening. A sign that birth is imminent.
cryptorchidism Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth.
culdoscopy examination of the female pelvic cavity, particularly behind the uterus, by introducing an endoscope through the wall of the vagina.
cystocele hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina. May cause urinary frequency & urgency.
delivery The emergence of the baby from the birth canal.
digital rectal exam Manual examination for an enlarged prostate gland performed by palpating (feeling)the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum.
dilation and curettage (D&C) surgical procedure in which the opening of the cervix is dilated & the uterus is scraped or suctioned of its lining or tissue. Often performed after a spontaneous abortion & to stop excessive bleeding from other causes.
dilation stage The first stage of labor. It begins with uterine contractions that press the fetus against the cervix causing it to dilate to 10 cm & become thin. The thinning of the cervix is called effacement.
dysmenorrhea painful menstrual flow
dystocia difficult labor and childbirth
eclampsia convulsive seizures & coma occurring in the woman between the 20th week of pregnancy & the 1st week of postpartum. Preceded by preeclampsia.
effacement The thinning of the cervix during labor.
elective abortion legal termination of a pregnancy for nonmedical reasons.
embryo The term to describe the developing infant from fertilization until the end of the eighth week.
embryonic pertaining to the embryo
endocervicitis inflammation within cervix
endometrial biopsy (EMB) taking a sample of tissue from the lining of the uterus to test for abnormalities.
endometrial cancer cancer of the endrometrial lining of the uterus.
endometriosis abnormal condition of endometrium tissue appearing throughout the pelvis or on the abdominal wall. This tissue is normally found within the uterus.
endometritis inflammation within the uterus
endometrium The inner lining of the uterus.
epididymal pertaining to the epididymis
epididymectomy removal of the epididymis
epididymitis inflammation of the epididymis.
episiotomy Surgical incision of the perineum to facilitate the delivery process. Can prevent an irregular tearing of tissue during birth.
episiorrhaphy suture of vulva
epispadias Congenital opening of the urethra on the dorsal surface of the penis.
erectile dysfunction Inability to copulate due to inability to maintain an erection; also called impotence.
erectile dysfunction agents Medication that temporarily produces an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction.
erectile tissue Tissue with numerous blood vessels and nerve endings. It becomes filled with blood and enlarges in size in response to sexual stimulation.
estrogen One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with progesterone to control the menstrual cycle and it is responsible for producing the secondary sexual characteristics.
expulsion stage Stage of labor and delivery during which the baby is delivered.
fallopian tube Organ in the female reproductive system that transports eggs from the ovary to the uterus.
fertility drug medication that triggers ovulation. Also called ovulation stimulant.
fertilization Also called impregnation. The fusion of an ova and sperm to produce an embryo.
fetal Pertaining to the fetus.
fetal monitoring Using electronic equipment placed on the mother’s abdomen or the fetus’ scalp to check the fetal heart rate (FHR) & fetal heart tone (FHT) during labor.
fibrocystic breast disease benign cysts forming in the breasts.
fibroid tumor benign tumor or growth that contains fiber-like tissue. Uterine fibroid tumors are the most common tumors in women.
fimbriae The fingerlike extensions on the end of the fallopian tubes. The fimbriae drape over each ovary in order to direct the ovum into the fallopian tube after it is expelled by the ovary.
follicle stimulating hormone A hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland. It stimulates growth of eggs in females and sperm in males.
fraternal twins Twins that develop from 2 different ova fertilized by 2 different sperm. Although twins, these siblings do not have identical DNA.
fundus The domed upper portion of an organ such as the stomach or uterus.
genital herpes Creeping skin disease that can appear like a blister or vesicle, caused by a sexually transmitted virus.
genitalia The male and female reproductive organs.
genital warts Growths and elevations of warts on the genitalia of both males and females that can lead to cancer of the cervix in females.
genitourinary system Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs.
gestation Length of time from conception to birth, generally nine months. Calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, with a range of from 259 days to 280 days.
glans penis The larger and softer tip of the penis. It is protected by a covering called the prepuce or foreskin.
gonorrhea Sexually transmitted inflammation of the mucous membranes of either sex. Can be passed on to an infant during the birth process.
gynecologist specialist in female reproductive system
gynecology branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis & treatment of conditions of the female reproductive system. Physician is called a gynecologist.
hematosalpinx blood in the fallopian tube
hemolytic disease of the newborn Condition that develops when the mother’s blood type is Rh- & the baby’s blood is Rh+. Antibodies in the mother’s blood enter the fetus’s bloodstream through the placenta & destroy the fetus’s red blood cells.
hormonal conception Use of hormones to block ovulation & prevent contraception. May be in the form of a pill, patch, implant under the skin, or injection.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) menopause or surgical loss of the ovaries results in the lack of estrogen production. Replacing the hormone may prevent some of the consequences of menopause, especially in younger women who have surgically lost their ovaries.
human immunodeficiency virus Virus that causes AIDS; also known as a retrovirus.
hydrocele Accumulation of fluid within the testes.
hymen A thin membranous tissue that covers the external vaginal opening. The membrane is broken during the first sexual encounter of the female. It can also be broken prematurely by the use of tampons or during some sports activities.
hymenectomy removal of hymen
hypospadias Congenital opening of the male urethra on the underside of the penis.
hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus
hysteropexy surgical fixation of the uterus
hysterorrhexis ruptured uterus
hysterosalpingography taking of an x-ray after injecting radiopaque material into the uterus & fallopian tubes.
identical twins twins that develop from splitting of one fertilized ovum. These siblings have identical DNA.
infertility inability to produce children. Generally defined as no pregnancy after properly timed intercourse for one year.
intrauterine device Device that is inserted into the uterus by a physician for the purpose of contraception.
labia majora A fold of skin that serves as protection for the female external genitalia and urethral meatus.
labia minora A fold of skin that serves as protection for the female external genitalia and urethral meatus.
labor process of giving birth
lactation The function of secreting milk after childbirth from the breasts or mammary glands.
lactic pertaining to milk
lactiferous ducts Carries milk from the mild-producing glands to the nipple.
lactiferous glands Milk-producing glands in the breast.
lactorrhea milk discharge
laparoscope instrument to view inside the abdomen
laparoscopy examination of the peritoneal cavity using an instrument called a laparoscope. The instrument is passed through a small incision made by the surgeon into the abdominopelvic cavity.
laparotomy incision into the abdomen
lumpectomy removal of a breast tumor & the tissue immediately surrounding it.
luteinizing hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females.
mammary pertaining to the breast
mammary glands The breasts; milk-producing glands to provide nutrition for newborn.
mammogram record of the breast
mammography using x-ray to diagnose breast disease, especially breast cancer.
mammoplasty surgical repair of breast
mastalgia breast pain
mastectomy removal of the breast
mastitis inflammation of the breast
meconium first bowel movement of a newborn. It is greenish-black in color and consists of mucus and bile.
mearche The first menstrual period.
menometrorrhagia excessive bleeding during the menstrual period & at intervals between menstrual periods
menorrhagia abnormal, rapid menstrual flow
menopause cessation of menstruation between the ages of 40 and 55.
metrorrhagia rapid menstrual blood flow from uterus
metrorrhea flow from uterus
menstrual period Another name for the menstrual cycle.
menstruation The loss of blood and tissue as the endometrium in shed by the uterus. The flow exits the body through the cervix & vagina. The flow occurs approximately every 28 days.
multigravida multiple pregnancies
multipara multiple births
neonate newborn
neonatologist specialist in the study of the newborn
neonatology Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis & treatment of conditions involving newborns. Physician is called a neonatologist.
nulligravida no pregnancies
nullipara no births
nurse To breastfeed a baby.
obstetrics Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis & treatment of women during pregnancy, childbirth, & immediately after childbirth. Physician is called an obstetrician.
oligomenorrhea scanty menstrual flow
oligospermia condition of scanty (few) sperm
oophorectomy removal of the ovary
oophoritis inflammation of the ovary
oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) birth control medication that uses low doses of female hormones to prevent conception by blocking ovulation.
orchidectomy removal of the testes
orchidopexy surgical fixation of the testes
orchiectomy removal of testes
orchioplasty surgical repair of testes
orchiotomy incision of testes
ova The female sex cell or gamete produced in the ovary. An ovum fuses with a sperm to produce an embryo. Singular is ovum.
ovarian pertaining to ovaries
ovarian carcinoma cancer of the ovary
ovarian cyst cyst that develops within the ovary. These may be multiple cysts & may rupture, causing pain and bleeding.
ovaries The female gonads. These two glands are located on either side of the lower abdominopelvic region of the female. They are responsible for the production of the sex cells, ova, and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
oviducts fallopian tubes.
ovulation The release of an ovum from the ovary.
oxytocin a natural hormone that begins or improves uterine contractions during labor and delivery.
Pap smear test for the early detection of cervical cancer named after the developer of the test, George Papanicolaou, a Greek physician. A scraping of cells is removed from the cervix for examination under a microscope.
pelvic examination physical examination of the vagina & adjacent organs performed by a physician placing fingers of one hand into the vagina. An instrument called a speculum is used to open the vagina.
pelvic inflammatory disease chronic or acute infection, usually bacterial, that has ascended through the female reproductive organs & out into the pelvic cavity. May result in scarring that interferes with fertility.
pelvic ultrasonography use of ultrasound waves to produce an image or photograph of an organ, such as the uterus, ovaries, or fetus.
penis the male sex organ. It is composed of erectile tissue that becomes erect during sexual stimulation, allowing it to be placed within the female vagina for ejaculation of semen. The larger, soft tip is referred to as the glans penis.
perimetritis inflammation around the uterus
perimetrium The outer layer of the uterus.
perineum In the male, the external region between the scrotum and anus. In the female, the external region between the vagina and anus.
phimosis Narrowing of the foreskin over the glans penis that results in difficulty with hygiene. This condition can lead to infection or difficulty with urination. It ‘s treated with circumcision, the surgical removal of the foreskin.
placenta Afterbirth. An organ attached to the uterine wall composed of maternal & fetal tissues. Oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, & wastes are exchanged between the mother and baby through the placenta. The baby is attached to the placenta by the umbilical cord.
placenta previa A placenta that is implanted in the lower portion of the uterus and, in turn, blocks the birth canal.
placental stage The third stage of labor, which takes place after delivery of the infant. The uterus resumes strong contractions and the placenta detaches from the uterine wall and is delivered through the vagina.
postpartum after birth
preeclampsia Metabolic disease of pregnancy. If untreated, it may result in true eclampsia. Symptoms include hypertension, headaches, albumin in urine, & edema. Also called toxemia.
pregnancy The time from fertilization of an ovum to the birth of the newborn.
pregnancy test chemical test that can determine a pregnancy during the first few weeks. Can be performed in a physician’s office or with a home-testing kit.
premature early
premenstrual syndrome Symptoms that develop just prior to the onset of a menstrual period, which can include irritability, headache, tender breasts, & anxiety.
prepuce Also called the foreskin. A protective covering over the glans penis.
priapism A persistent and painful erection due to pathological causes, not sexual arousal.
primigravida first pregnancy
primipara first birth
progesterone One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle.
prolapsed umbilical cord when the umbilical cord of the baby is expelled first during delivery & is squeeze between the baby’s head & the vaginal wall. This presents an emergency since the baby’s circulation is compromised.
prolapsed uterus fallen uterus that can cause the cervix to protrude through the vaginal opening. Generally caused by weakened muscles from vaginal delivery or pelvic tumors pressing down.
prostate cancer cancer of the prostate.
prostate gland A gland in the male re productive system that produces fluids that nourish the sperm.
prostate-specific antigen A blood test to screen for prostate cancer. Elevated blood levels of PSA are associated with prostate cancer.
prostatectomy removal of prostate
prostatic pertaining to the prostate
prostatitis prostate inflammation
pseudocyesis false pregnancy
puberty Beginning of menstruation and the ability to reproduce.
pyosalpinx pus in fallopian tube
radical masectomy surgical removal of the breast tissue plus chest muscles and axillary lymph nodes.
rectocele protrusion or herniation of the rectum into the vagina.
salpingectomy removal of the fallopian tube
salpingitis inflammation of the fallopian tube
salpingocyesis tubal pregnancy
scrotum A sac that serves as a container for the testes. This sac, which is divided by a septum, supports the testicles and lies between the legs and behind the penis.
semen Semen contains sperm and fluids secreted by male reproductive system glands. It leaves the body through the urethra.
semen analysis This procedure is used when performing a fertility workup to determine if the male is able to produce sperm.
seminal vesicles Two male reproductive system glands located at the base of the bladder. They secrete a fluid that nourishes the sperm into the vas deferens. This fluid plus the sperm constitutes much of the semen.
seminiferous tubules Network of coiled tubes that make up the bulk of the testes. Sperm development takes place in the walls of the tubules and the mature sperm are released into the tubule in order to leave the testes.
sex hormones Hormones secreted by the gonads and the adrenal cortex; estrogen and progesterone in females and testosterone in males.
sexually transmitted disease Disease usually acquired as the result of sexual intercourse; formerly more commonly referred to as venereal disease.
simple masectomy surgical removal of the breast tissue.
sperm Also called spermatozoon (plural is spermatozoa). The male sex cell. One sperm fuses with the ova to produce a new being.
spermatic pertaining to sperm
spermatic cord The term for the cord-like collection of structures that include the vas deferens, arteries, veins, nerves, and lymph vessels. The spermatic cord suspends the tests within the scrotum.
spermatocide Substances that kill sperm.
spermatogenesis Formation of mature sperm.
spermatolysis sperm destruction
sphincter A ring of muscle around a tubular organ. It can contract to control the opening of the tube.
spontaneous abortion unplanned loss of a pregnancy due to the death of the embryo or fetus before the time it is viable. Miscarriage.
sterility Inability to father children due to a problem with spermatogenesis.
sterilization Process of rendering a male or female sterile or unable to conceive children.
stillbirth birth in which a viable-aged fetus dies shortly before or at the time of delivery.
syphilis Infectious, chronic, venereal disease that can involve any organ. May exist for years without symptoms. Treated with the antibiotic penicillin.
testes The male gonads. The testes are oval glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone.
testicular pertaining to the testes
testicular carcinoma Cancer of the testes
testicular torsion A twisting of the spermatic cord.
testosterone Male hormone produced in the testes. It is responsible for the growth and development of the male reproductive organs.
therapeutic abortion termination of a pregnancy for the health of the mother or another medical reason.
total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy removal of the entire uterus, cervix, both ovaries, and both fallopian tubes.
toxic shock syndrome Rare & sometimes fatal staphylococcus infection that generally occurs in menstruating women. Initial infection of the vagina is associated with prolonged wearing of a super-absorbent tampon.
transurethral resection of the prostate Surgical removal of the prostate gland by inserting a device through the urethra and removing prostate tissue.
trichomoniasis Genitourinary infection that is usually without symptoms (asymptomatic) in both males and females. In women the disease can produce itching and/or burning & a foul-smelling discharge, and can result in vaginitis.
tubal ligation surgical tying off of the fallopian tubes to prevent conception from taking place. Results in sterilization of the female.
umbilical cord A cord extending from the baby's umbilicus (navel) to the placenta: It contains blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the baby and carbon dioxide and wastes from the baby to the mother.
urinary meatus The external opening of the urethra.
uterine pertaining to the uterus
uterine tubes fallopian tubes
uterus Womb. This hollow, pear-shaped organ is in the lower pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder & rectum. The uterus receives the fertilized ovum which implants in the uterine wall. This provides nourishment & protection for the fetus.
vagina Organ in the female reproductive system that receives the penis and semen.
vaginal hysterectomy removal of the uterus through the vagina rather than through an abdominal incision.
vaginal pertaining to the vagina
vaginal orifice The external vaginal opening. It may be covered by a hymen.
vaginitis inflammation of the vagina
varicocele Enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord, which commonly occurs on the left side of adolescent males. Seldom needs treatment.
vas deferens A long straight tube that carries sperm from the epididymis up into the pelvic cavity, where it continues around the bladder and empties into the urethra. It is one of the components, along with nerves and blood vessels, of the spermatic cord.
vasectomy Removal of a segment or all of the vas deferens to prevent sperm from leaving the male body. Used for contraception purposes.
vasovasostomy Creation of a new opening between two sections of vas deferens. Used to reverse a vasectomy.
vesicular pertaining to the seminal vesicle
vulva A general term meaning the external female genitalia. It consists of the Bartholin's glands, labia major, labia minora, and clitoris.
acidosis Excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids, as in diabetic acidosis
acromegaly chronic disease of adults that result in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities. There can also be mood changes. Due to an excessive amount of growth hormone in an adult
Addison’s disease disease named for British physician Thomas Addison that results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones. There may be an increased pigmentation of the skin, generalized weakness, and weight loss.
adenocarcinoma cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland. One cause of hypersecretion pathologies
adrenal pertaining to the adrenal glands
adrenal cortex The outer portion of the adrenal glands; secretes several families of hormones: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones.
adrenalectomy removal of adrenal glands
adrenal feminization development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in a male. Often as a result of increased estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex.
adrenal glands A pair of glands in the endocrine system located just above each kidney. This glands is composed of two sections, the cortex and the medulla, that function independently of each other.
adrenaline A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Also known as epinephrine. Some of its actions include increasing heart rate and force of contraction, bronchodilation, & relaxation of intestinal muscles.
adrenalitis inflammation of an adrenal gland
adrenal medulla The inner portion of the adrenal gland. It secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
adrenal virilism development of male secondary characteristics (such as deeper voice and facial hair) in a female. Often as a result of increased androgen secretion by the adrenal cortex
adrenocorticotropin hormone A hormone secreted by anterior pituitary. It regulates function of the adrenal gland cortex.
adrenomegaly enlarged adrenal gland
adrenopathy adrenal gland disease
aldosterone A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. It regulates the levels of sodium & potassium in the body and as a side effect the volume of water lost in urine.
androgen A class of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. These hormones, such as testosterone, produce a masculinizing effect.
anterior lobe The anterior portion of the pituitary gland. It secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.
antidiuretic hormone A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary. It promotes water reabsorption by the kidney tubules.
antithyroid agents medication given to block production of thyroid hormones in patients with hypersecretion disorders
blood serum test blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, insulin, and glucose. Used to assist in determining the function of various endocrine glands
calcitonin A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It stimulates deposition of calcium into bone.
calcium An inorganic substance found in plasma. It is important for bones, muscles, and nerves.
chemical thyroidectomy large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells without having to actually do surgery
circadian rhythm The 24-hour clock that governs our periods of wakefulness and sleepiness.
corticosteroids Hormones that regulate carbohydrate metabolism & have a strong anti-inflammatory action. Used to treat severe chronic inflammatory diseases & adrenal cortex hyposecretion disorders. Long-term use can cause osteoporosis & symptoms of Cushing's disease
cortisol A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. It regulates carbohydrate metabolism.
cretinism congenital condition in which a lack of thyroid hormones may result in arrested physical and mental development
Cushing’s syndrome set of symptoms, named after U.S neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing, that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. This may be the result of a tumor in the adrenal glands. Includes weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration, osteoporosis.
diabetes insipidus (DI) disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. There may be polyuria and polydipsia
diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria. There are two distinct forms of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1, & non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2
diabetic retinopathy secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in visual changes and even blindness
dwarfism condition of being abnormally short in height. It may be the result of a hereditary condition or a lack of growth hormone
edema condition in which the body tissues contain excessive amounts of fluid
endocrine glands A glandular system that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream rather than into a duct. Endocrine glands are frequently referred to as ductless glands.
endocrine system The body system that consists of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream. The endocrine glands include the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, testes, ovaries, thymus gland, and thyroid gland.
endocrinologist specialist in the endocrine system
endocrinology The branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the endocrine system.
endocrinopathy endocrine system disease
epinephrine A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Also known as adrenaline. Some of its actions include increased heart rate & force of contraction, bronchodilation, & relaxation of intestinal muscles
estrogen One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with progesterone to control the menstrual cycle and it is responsible for producing the secondary sexual characteristics.
exocrine glands Glands that secrete substances into a duct. Tears and tear ducts are examples of an exocrine gland.
exophthalmos condition in which the eyeballs protrude, such as in Graves’ disease. This is generally caused by an overproduction of thyroid hormone.
Fasting blood sugar (FBS) blood test to measure the amount of sugar circulating throughout the body after a 12-hour fast
gigantism excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland in a child or teenager. The opposite of dwarfism
glands The organs of the body that release secretions. Exocrine glands, like sweat glands, release their secretions into ducts. Endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, release their hormones directly into the blood stream.
glucagon A hormone secreted by pancreas. It stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood.
glucose tolerance test (GTT) test to determine blood sugar level. A dose of glucose is given orally or intravenously. Blood samples are then drawn at certain intervals to determine patient's ability to use glucose. Used for diabetics to determine their insulin response to glucose.
glycosuria sugar in the urine
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
gonadotropins Common name for follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
gonads The organs responsible for producing sex cells. The female gonads are the ovaries and they produce ova. The male gonads are the testes and they produce sperm.
Graves’ disease condition named for Irish physician Robert Graves that results in overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation. Symptoms include exophthalmos and goiter. A type of hyperthyroidism
growth hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates growth of the body.
gynecomastia Development of breast tissue in males. May be a symptom of adrenal feminization.
Hashimoto’s disease chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis, results in hyposecretion of thyroid hormones
hirsutism Condition of having an excessive amount of hair. Term generally used to describe females who have the adult male pattern of hair growth. Can be the result of a hormone imbalance.
homeostasis Steady state or state of balance within the body. The kidneys assist in maintaining this regulatory, steady state.
hormone A chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland. It enters the blood stream and is carried to target tissue. Hormones work to control the functioning of the target tissue.
Hormone replacement therapy artificial replacement of hormones in patients with hyposecretion disorders. May be oral pills, injections, or adhesive skin patches
Human growth hormone therapy hormone replacement therapy with human growth hormone in order to stimulate skeletal growth. Used to treat children with abnormally short stature
hypercalcemia excessive calcium in the blood
hyperglycemia excessive sugar in the blood
hyperkalemia excessive potassium in the blood
hyperparathyroidism state of excessive parathyroid
hyperpituitarism state of excessive pituitary
hypersecretion excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland.
hyperthyroidism state of excessive thyroid
hypocalcemia low calcium in the blood
hypoglycemia low sugar in the blood
hyponatremia low sodium in the blood
hypoparathyroidism state of insufficient parathyroid
hypopituitarism state of insufficient pituitary
hyposecretion deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland
hypothalalmus A portion of the diencephalon that lies just below the thalamus. It controls body temperature, appetite, sleep, sexual desire, & emotions. It regulates the parasympathetic & sympathetic nervous systems.
hypothyroidism state of insufficient thyroid
Insulin administered to replace insulin for type 1 diabetics or to treat severe type 2 diabetics
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) also called type 1 diabetes mellitus. It develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production. Patient must take daily insulin injections.
Insulinoma Tumor of the islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes excessive amount of insulin
iodine A mineral required by the thyroid to produce its hormones.
Ketoacidosis acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies (waste products). A serious condition requiring immediate treatment that can result in death for the diabetic patient if not reversed. Also called diabetic acidosis
laparoscopic adrenalectomy removal of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments
Lobectomy removal of a lobe from an organ. In this case, one lobe of the thyroid gland
luteinizing hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It stimulates pigment production in the skin.
menstrual cycle The 28-day fertility cycle in women; includes ovulation and sloughing off the endometrium if a pregnancy does not occur.
mineralocorticoids A group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. They regulate electrolytes and fluid volume in the body. Aldosterone is an example of a mineralocorticoid.
melatonin Hormone secreted by the pineal gland; plays a role in regulating the body's circadian rhythm.
myxedema condition resulting from a hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in an adult. Symptoms can include anemia, slow speech, swollen facial features, edematous skin, drowsiness, and mental lethargy
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) also called type 2 diabetes mellitus. Typically develops later in life. The pancreas produces normal to high levels of insulin, but the cells fail to respond to it. Patients may take oral hypoglycemic to improve insulin function, or may take insulin
norepinephrine A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla. It is a strong vasoconstrictor.
obesity having an abnormal amount of fat in the body.
Oral hypoglycemic agents medications taken by mouth that cause a decrease in blood sugar; not used for insulin-dependent patients
ova The female sex cell or gamete produced in the ovary. An ovum fuses with a sperm to produce an embryo. Singular is ovum.
ovaries The female gonads. These two glands are located on either side of the lower abdominopelvic region of the female. They are responsible for the production of the sex cells, ova, estrogen, & progesterone.
oxytocin A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary. It stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery.
pancreas Organ in the digestive system that produces digestive enzymes. Also a gland in the endocrine system that produces two hormones, insulin and glucagon.
pancreatic pertaining to the pancreas
Panhypopituitarism deficiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Often recognized because of problems with the glands regulated by the pituitary-adrenal cortex, thyroid, ovaries, and testes
parathyroid glands Four small glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid hormone secreted by these glands regulates the amount of calcium in the blood.
parathyroidal pertaining to the parathyroid gland
parathyroidectomy removal of the parathyroid gland
parathyroid hormone The hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands. The more hormone, the higher the calcium level in the blood and the lower the level stored in bone. A low hormone level will cause tetany.
Peripheral neuropathy damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include either extreme sensitivity or numbness and tingling
Pheochromocytoma usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine. Symptoms include anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, profuse sweating, headache, and nausea
pineal gland A gland in the endocrine system that produces a hormone called melatonin.
pituitary pertaining to the pituitary gland
pituitary gland An endocrine gland located behind the optic nerve in the brain. It is also called the master gland since it controls the functions of many other endocrine glands.
polydipsia many (excessive) thirst
polyuria condition of (too) much urine
posterior lobe The posterior portion of the pituitary gland. It secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.
progesterone One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with estrogen to control the menstrual cycle.
prolactin A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It stimulates mild production.
Protein-bound iodine test(PBI) blood test to measure the concentration of thyroxine (T4) circulating in the bloodstream. The iodine becomes bound to the protein in the blood and can be measured. Useful in establishing thyroid function
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) test used to measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood
Recklinghausen disease Excessive production of parathyroid hormone, which results in degeneration of the bones. Named for German histologist Friedrich von Recklinghausen
somatotropin Another name for growth hormone; a hormone that promotes growth of the body by stimulating cells to rapidly increase in size and divide.
sperm Also called spermatozoon (plural is spermatozoa). The male sex cell. One sperm fuses with the ova to produce a new being.
steroid sex hormone A class of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. It includes aldosterone, cortisol, androgens, estrogens, and progestins.
syndrome group of symptoms and signs that, when combined, present a clinical picture of a disease or condition.
target organs The organs that hormones act on to either increase or decrease the organ's activity level.
T cells A lymphocyte active in cellular immunity.
testes male gonads
testosterone Male hormone produced in the testes. It is responsible for the growth and development of the male reproductive organs.
Tetany nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia. Hypoparathyroidism is one cause of tetany
thalamus The thalamus is a portion of the diencephalon composed of gray matter. It acts as a center for relaying impulses from the eyes, ears, & skin to the cerebrum. Pain perception is also controlled by the thalamus.
thymectomy removal of the thymus
thymic pertaining to the thymus gland
thymitis thymus inflammation
thymoma thymus tumor
thymosin Hormone secreted by thymus gland. It causes lymphocytes to change into T-lymphocytes.
thymus gland An endocrine gland in the upper mediastinum that assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. As part of the immune response it secretes a hormone, thymosin, that changes lymphocytes to T cells.
thyroidal pertaining to the thyroid gland
Thyroid echogram ultrasound examination of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst
thyroidectomy removal of the thyroid
Thyroid function test (TFT) blood test used to measure the levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood stream to assist in determining thyroid function
thyroid gland Endocrine gland located on either side of the trachea. Its shape resembles a butterfly with a large left and right lobe connected by a narrow isthmus. This gland produces the hormones thyroxine (also known as T4) and triiodothyronine (also known as T3).
Thyroid replacement hormone hormone replacement therapy for patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy
Thyroid scan test in which radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in the thyroid gland. The gland can then be visualized with a scanning device to detect pathology such as tumors
thyroid-stimulating hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. It regulates function of the thyroid gland.
thyromegaly enlarged thyroid
Thyrotoxicosis condition resulting from marked overproduction of the thyroid gland. Symptoms include rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, and weight loss
thyroxine A hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is also known as T4 and requires iodine for its production. This hormone regulates the level of cell metabolism. The greater the level of hormone in the bloodstream, the higher cell metabolism will be.
Total calcium blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in detecting parathyroid and bone disorders
triiodothyronine A hormone produced by the thyroid gland known as T3 that requires iodine for its production. This hormone regulates the level of cell metabolism. The greater the level of hormone in the blood stream, the higher cell metabolism will be.
Two-hour postprandial glucose tolerance test blood test to assist in evaluating metabolism. The patient eats a high carbohydrate diet and then fasts overnight before the test. Then the blood sample is taken two hours after a meal
Vasopressin given to control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules
absence seizure Type of epileptic seizure that lasts only a few seconds to half a minute, characterized by loss of awareness and an absence of activity. Also called a petit mal seizure.
afferent neurons Nerve that carries impulses to the brain and spinal cord from the skin and sense organs. Also called sensory neurons.
Alzheimer's disease Chronic, organic mental disorder consisting of dementia, which is more prevalent in adults between ages 40-60. Involves progressive disorientation, apathy, speech & gait disturbances, & loss of memory. Named for German neurologist Alois Alzheimer.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Disease w/muscle weakness & atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons of the spinal cord. Also called Lou Gehrig's disease, after the NY Yankees baseball player who died from the disease.
analgesia absence of pain or sensation
analgesic Non-narcotic medication to treat minor to moderate pain. Includes aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.
anesthesia lack of sensations
anesthesiology Branch of medicine specializing in all aspects of anesthesia, including for surgical procedures, resuscitation measures, & the management of acute & chronic pain. Physician is an anesthesiologist.
anesthetic Drug that produces a loss of sensation or consciousness.Lidocaine, propofol, Novocain.
anticonvulsant Substance that reduces the excitability of neurons & therefore prevents the uncontrolled neuron activity associated w/seizures. Tegretol, Nembutal.
aphasia lack of speech
arachnoid layer The delicate middle layer of the meninges.
ascending tracts Nerve tracts carrying sensory information up the spinal cord to the brain.
astrocytoma Tumor of the brain or spinal cord that is composed of astrocytes, one of the types of neuroglial cells.
ataxia lack of muscle coordination
aura Sensations, such as seeing colors or smelling unusual odor, that occur just prior to an epileptic seizure or migraine headache.
autonomic nervous system The portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves to the internal organs that function involuntarily.
axon Single projection of a neuron that conducts impulse away from nerve cell body.
Babinski reflex Reflex test developed by French neurologist Joseph Babinski to determine nervous system lesions & abnormalities. The Babinski reflex is present if the great toe extends instead of the normal flexion when the lateral sole of the foot is stroked.
Bell's palsy One-sided facial paralysis due to inflammation of the facial nerve, probably viral in nature. The patient can't control salivation, tearing of the eyes, or expression, but most likely will recover.
brain The brain is one of the largest organs in the body and coordinates most body activities. It is the center for all thought, memory, judgment, and emotion.
brain scan Image of the brain taken after injection of radioactive isotopes into the circulation.
brain stem The brain stem is a pathway for impulses to be conducted between the brain & the spinal cord. It also contains the centers that control respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure. 12 pairs of cranial nerves begin in the brain stem.
brain tumor Intracranial mass, either benign or malignant. A benign tumor of the brain can still be fatal since it will grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue.
carotid endarterectomy Surgical procedure for removing an obstruction within the carotid artery, a major artery in the neck that carries oxygenated blood to the brain. Developed to prevent strokes, but is useful only in severe stenosis w/transient ischemic attack.
central canal Canal that extends down the length of the spinal cord; contains cerebrospinal fluid.
central nervous system The portion of the nervous system that consist of the brain & spinal cord. It receives impulses from the body, processes this information, & responds with an action.
cephalalgia head pain (headache)
cerebellar pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebellitis cerebellum inflammation
cerebellum The second largest portion of the brain, it is located beneath the posterior portion of the cerebrum. It aids in coordinating voluntary body movements and maintaining balance and equilibrium.
cerebral pertaining to the cerebrum
cerebral aneurysm Localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; the result of a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel. A ruptured aneurysm is a common cause of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident.
cerebral angiography X-ray of the blood vessels of the brain after the injection of radiopaque dye.
cerebral contusion Bruising of the brain from a blow or impact. Symptoms last longer than 24 hrs and include unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, & shock.
cerebral cortex The outer layer of the cerebrum. It is composed of folds of gray matter called gyri, which are separated by sulci.
cerebral hemispheres The division of the cerebrum into right and left halves.
cerebral palsy Nonprogressive brain damage resulting from a defect, trauma, or oxygen deprivation at birth.
cerebrospinal pertaining to the cerebrum and spine
cerebralspinal fluid Watery clear fluid found in the ventricles of the brain. It provides protection from shock or sudden motion to the brain.
cerebrospinal fluid analysis Lab examination of the clear, watery, colorless fluid from within the brain and spinal cord. Infections and the abnormal presence of blood can be detected in this test.
cerebrospinal fluid shunts Surgical procedure in which a bypass is created to drain cerebrospinal fluid. Used to treat hydrocephalus by draining the excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain & diverting it to the abdominal cavity.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Development of an infarct due to loss in the blood supply to an area of the brain. Blood flow can be interrupted by a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), floating clot (embolus), stationary clot (thrombosis), or compression. Commonly called a stroke.
cerebrum The largest section of the brain. It is located in the upper portion and is the area that possesses our thoughts, judgment, memory, and association skills, and the ability to discriminate between items.
coma Profound unconsciousness or stupor resulting from an illness or injury.
concussion Brain injury resulting from the brain being shaken inside the skull from a blow or impact. Can result in unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, & shock. Symptoms last 24 hrs or less.
conscious Condition of being awake and aware of surroundings.
convulsion Severe involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. These have a variety of causes, such as epilepsy, fever, and toxic conditions.
cranial nerves Nerves that arise from the brain.
delirium Abnormal mental state characterized by confusion, disorientation, and agitation.
dementia Progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes w/performing activities of daily living. Patients have little awareness of their condition. Found in disorders such as Alzheimer's.
dendrite Branched process off a neuron that receive impulses & carry it to the cell body.
descending tracts Nerve tracts carrying motor signals down the spinal cord to the muscles.
diencephalon The portion of the brain that contains two of the most critical areas of the brain, the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
dopaminergic drugs Group of medications to treat Parkinson's disease by either replacing the dopamine that is lacking or increasing the strength of the dopamine that is present. L-dopa, Sinemet.
dura mater The term means tough mother. It is the fibrous outermost meninges layer that forms a tough protective layer.
dysphasia difficult speech
echoencephalography Recording of the ultrasonic echoes of the brain. Useful in determining abnormal patterns of shifting in the brain.
efferent neurons Nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands. Also called motor neurons.
electroencephalogram (EEG) record of brain's electricity
electroencephalography Recording of the electrical activity of the brain by placing electrodes at various positions on the scalp. Also used in sleep studies to determine if there is a normal pattern of activity during sleep.
encephalitis brain inflammation
epidural hematoma Mass of blood in the space outside the dura mater of the brain and spinal cord.
epilepsy Recurrent disorder of the brain in which seizures & loss of consciousnes occur as a result of uncontrolled electrical activity of the neurons in the brain.
focal seizure Localized seizure often affecting one limb.
frontal lobe One of the four cerebral hemisphere lobes. It controls motor functions.
ganglion Knot-like mass of nerve tissue located outside the brain and spinal cord.
glands The organs of the body that release secretions.
gray matter Tissue within the central nervous system. It consists of unsheathed or uncovered nerve cell bodies and dendrites.
Guillain-Barre syndrome Disease in which nerves lose their myelin covering. May be caused by an autoimmune action. Characterized by lack of sensation and/or muscle control, starting in the legs. Symptoms then move toward the trunk & may result in paralysis of the diaphragm.
gyri The convoluted, elevated portions of the cerebral cortex. They are separated by fissures or sulci.
hemiparesis Weakness or loss of motion on one side of the body.
hemiplegia Paralysis on only one side of the body.
hydrocephalus Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain, causing the head to be enlarged. It is treated by creating an artificial shunt for the fluid to leave the brain. If left untreated, may lead to seizures or mental retardation.
hyperesthesia excessive sensations
hypnotic Drug that promotes sleep. Seconal, Restoril.
hypothalamus The hypothalamus is a portion of the diencephalon that lies just below the thalamus. It controls body temperature, appetite, sleep, sexual desire, emotions, & regulates release of hormones from pituitary gland
intrathecal pertaining to within the meninges
laminectomy Removal of a portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on the spinal nerve.
lumbar puncture Puncture with a needle into the lumbar area (usually the 4th intervertebral space) to withdraw fluid for examination & for the injection of anesthesia. Also called spinal puncture or spinal tap.
medulla oblongata A portion of the brain stem that connects the spinal cord with the brain. It contains the respiratory, cardiac, and blood pressure control centers.
meningeal pertaining to the meninges
meninges Three connective tissue membrane layers that surround the brain and spinal cord. The three layers are dura mater, arachnoid layer, pia mater.
meningioma meninges tumor
meningitis meninges inflammation
meningocele congenital condition in which the meninges protrude through an opening in the vertebral column. See spina bifida.
midbrain A portion of the brain stem.
migraine Specific type of headache characterized by severe head pain, sensitivity to light, dizziness, and nausea.
monoparesis weakness of one
monoplegia paralysis of one
motor neurons Nerves that carry activity instruction from the CNS to muscles or glands out in the body; also called efferent neurons.
multiple sclerosis Inflammatory disease of the CNS in which there is extreme weakness & numbness due to loss of myelin insulation from nerves.
muscles Muscles are bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers.
myasthenia gravis disease with severe muscular weakness and fatigue due to insufficient neurotransmitter at a synapse.
myelin Tissue that wraps around many of the nerve fibers. It is composed of fatty material and functions as an insulator.
myelinated Nerve fibers covered with a layer of myelin.
myelitis spinal cord inflammation
myelogram record of spinal cord
myelography Injection of radiopaque dye into the spinal canal. An X-ray is then taken to examine the normal and abnormal outlines made by the dye.
myelomeningocele Congenital condition in which the meninges & spinal cord protrude through an opening in the vertebral column.
narcotic analgesic Drug used to treat severe pain; has the potential to be habit-forming if taking for a prolonged time. Opiates. Morphine, Demerol.
nerve block Injection of regional anesthetic to stop the passage of sensory or pain impulses along a nerve path.
nerve cell body The portion of the nerve cell that includes the nucleus.
nerve conduction velocity Test that measures how fast an impulse travels along a nerve. Can pinpoint an area of nerve damage.
nerve root The point where a spinal or cranial nerve is attached to the CNS.
nerves Structures in the nervous system that conduct electrical impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and other organs.
neural pertaining to nerves
neuralgia nerve pain
neurectomy removal of nerve
neuroglial cells Cells that perform support functions for neurons.
neurologist specialist in nerves
neurology Branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the nervous system. Physician is a neurologist.
neuroma nerve tumor
neuron The name for an individual nerve cell. Neurons group together to form nerves and other nervous tissue.
neuropathy nerve disease
neuroplasty surgical repair of nerves
neurorrhaphy suture of nerve
neurosurgery Branch of medicine concerned with treating diseases & conditions of the nervous systems by surgical means. Physician is a neurosurgeon.
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger that carries an electrical impulse across the gap between two neurons.
ocipital lobe One of the four cerebral hemisphere lobes. It controls eyesight.
palsy Temporary or permanent loss of the ability to control movement.
paralysis Temporary or permanent loss of function or voluntary movement.
paraplegia Paralysis of the lower portion of the body and both legs.
paresthesia Abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling.
parasympathetic branch A branch of the autonomic nervous system that serves as a counterbalance for the sympathetic nerves. It causes the heart rate to slow down, lowers the blood pressure, constricts eye pupils, & increases digestion.
parietal lobe One of the four cerebral hemisphere lobes. It receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors.
Parkinson's disease Chronic disorder of the nervous system with fine tremors, muscular weakness, rigidity, & a shuffling gait. Named for British physician Sir James Parkinson.
peripheral nervous system The portion of the nervous system that contains the cranial nerves and spinal nerves. These nerves are mainly responsible for voluntary muscle movement, smell, taste, sight, & hearing.
pia mater The term means soft mother. This thin innermost meninges layer is applied directly to the surface of the brain.
poliomyelitis Viral inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. Results in varying degrees of paralysis, may be mild & reversible or severe & permanent. This disease has been almost eliminated due to a discovery of a vaccine in the 1950s.
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves
pons This portion of the brain stem forms a bridge between the cerebellum & cerebrum. It is also where nerve fibers cross from 1 side of the brain to control functions & movement on the other side of the brain.
pontine pertaining to the pons
positron emission tomography (PET) Use of positive radionuclides to reconstruct brain sections. Measurement can be taken of oxygen & glucose uptake, cerebral blood flow, & blood volume. The amt of glucose the brain uses indicates how metabolically active the tissue is.
quadriplegia paralysis of four
radiculitis nerve root inflammation
radiculopathy nerve root disease
Reye syndrome Combination of symptoms first recognized by Australian pathologist R.D.K. Reye that includes acute encephalopathy & damage to organs, especially the liver. Occurs in children under 15 who've had a viral infection. It's also associated w/taking aspirin.
sedative Drug that has a calming or relaxing effect. Amytal, Butisol.
seizure Sudden, uncontrollable onset of symptoms, such as an epileptic seizure.
sensory neurons Nerves that carry sensory information from sensory receptors to the brain; also called afferent neurons.
sensory receptors Nerve fibers that are located directly under the surface of the skin. These receptors detect temperature, pain, touch, and pressure. The messages for these sensations are conveyed to the brain & spinal cord from the nerve endings in the skin.
shingles eruption of painful blisters on the body along a nerve path. Thought to be caused by Herpes zoster virus infection of the nerve root.
somatic nerves Nerves that serve the skin and skeletal muscles and are mainly involved with the conscious and voluntary activities of the body.
spina bifida Congenital defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which the laminae of the vertebra don't meet or close. May result in a meningocele or a myelomeningocele.
spinal cavity A dorsal body cavity within the spinal column that contains the spinal cord.
spinal cord The spinal cord provides a pathway for impulses traveling to and from the brain. It is a column of nerve fibers that extends from the medulla oblongata of the brain down to the level of the second lumber vertebra.
spinal cord injury Damage to the spinal cord as a result of trauma. Spinal cord may be bruised or completely severed.
spinal nerve A nerve that arises from the spinal cord.
subarachnoid space The space located between the arachnoid layer and pia mater. It contains cerebrospinal fluid.
subdural hematoma Mass of blood forming beneath the dura mater if the meninges are torn by trauma. May exert fatal pressure on the brain if the hematoma isn't drained by surgery.
subdural space Space located between the dura mater and the arachnoid layer.
sulci Also called fissures. The grooves that separate the gyri of the cerebral cortex.
sympathetic branch A branch of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates the body in times of stress & crisis by increasing heart rate, dilating airways to allow for more oxygen, increasing blood pressure, inhibiting digestion, & stimulating the production of adrenaline.
synapse The point at which the axon of one neuron meets the dendrite of the next neuron.
synaptic cleft The gap between two neurons.
syncope Fainting.
temporal lobe One of the four cerebral hemisphere lobes. It controls hearing & smell.
thalamic pertaining to the thalamus
thalamus The thalamus is a portion of the diencephalon composed of gray matter. It acts as a center for relaying impulses from the eyes, ears, & skin to the cerebrum. Pain perception is also controlled by the thalamus.
tonic-clonic seizure Type of severe epileptic seizure characterized by loss of consciousness & convulsions. The seizure alternates between strong continuous muscle spasms (tonic) & rhythmic muscle contraction & relaxation (clonic). Also called grand mal seizure.
tract A bundle of fibers located within the central nervous system.
tractotomy Surgical interruption of a nerve tract in the spinal cord. Used to treat intractable pain or muscle spasms.
transient ischemic attack (TIA) Temporary interference w/blood supply to the brain, causing neurological symptoms such as dizziness, numbness, & hemiparesis. May lead to a full-blown stroke (cerebrovascular accident).
tremor Involuntary or repetitive alternating movement of a part of the body.
unconscious Condition or state of being unaware of surroundings, with the inability to respond to stimuli.
ventricles fluid-filled spaces within the cerebrum. These contain cerebrospinal fluid, which is the watery, clear fluid that provides a protection from shock or sudden motion to the brain.
vertebral canal The bony canal through the vertebrate that contains the spinal cord.
vertebral column spinal column
white matter Tissue in the central nervous system. It consists of myelinated nerve fibers.
Created by: AltheaMathews