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Upper Cervical Segment Base of the skull (Occiput), atlas, and axis as a mechanical unit
Lower Cervical Segment Cervical vertebrae 3-7, as a unit
Cervical Articular Facets Are horizontal in order to allow free movement about eachother. Important for all the special senses
Nuchal Ligament Provides an extension of the cerivcal vertebrae for muscular attachment.
Key function of Atlas Allows a lot more rotation of the head. The joint between the axis and atlas (Synovial Joint) is designed for increased rotation.
Transverse ligament of the Atlas Extends from the tubercles of the lateral masses of C1 around the Dens of the Axis. Helps to protect the spinal cord during rotation. (it is in the vertebral foramen of the atlas. **Damage to this ligament will lead to Quadriplegic
40% of axis fractures Are at the base of the Dens. Happens because the base is much thinner where the transverse ligament passes posteriorly. Fracture of the dens allow the atlas to move without ristrictions
Atlanto-occipital and Atlantoaxial membranes Are legament-like membranes between the posterior arch of the atlas and the skull/ neural arch of the axis. **Extra protection for these joints.
Superior and Inferior Longitudinal bands Vertical ligaments passing from the transverse ligament to the occipital bone as well as body of C2. **Much weaker than the transverse ligament
Cruciate ligament of the Atlas 1.Transverse Ligament of the Atlas. 2.Superior Longitudinal Band. 3.Inferior Longitudinal Band
Alar Ligaments Extend from the sides of the Dens to the lateral margins of the Foramen Magnum. **Prevent excessive rotation
Tectorial Memembrane Strong, superior continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Broadens and passes posteriorly over the median atlanto-axial joint. Connects C2 to Foramen Magnun. Covers all other ligaments.
Hangman's fracture Fractures through the neural arches of C2
Uncinate Processes Unique to cervical vertebrae, form synovial joints with beveled area above it. Also important for movement and vertebrae acting together
Lordosis in the cervical spine Created by the shape of the Intervertebral discs between the cervical vertebrae. They are narrower posteriorlly.
Function of Beveled Facets During flexion, it allows a rotation instead of a bending. Rotation and Sidebending will occur in same direction.
Why dont you sidebend every time you rotate/turn your head? Because the upper segment of the neck can compensate for unwanted movement
Muscles involved in flexion of the C-spine 1.Longus Colli. 2.Rectus Capitis anterior
Muscles invovled in extension of the C-spine 1.Trapezius. 2.Semispinalis (both). 3.Splenius Capitis. 4.Rectus Capitis Posterior Maj&min
Muscles involved in rotation of the C-spine 1.Splenius (both). 2.Obliquus Capitis Sup&Inf
Mucles involved in sidebending of the C-spine 1.Scalenes
MyoDural Bridge Muscular connection between the inside of the skull and the Dura. Spasm could cause stretching of the dura and pain.
Muscles key in proprioception of head and C-spine suboccipital muscles
Sternocleidomastoid movements flexor with all of the infrahyoid muscles. Also an extnesor of the neck (without vertebral restriction). Rotation (to the opposite side). Can get fibrosis on one side, inducing rotation and side bending to opposite side with slide extension
Injury to Neck muscles Anterior neck muscles more prone because of their thin muscle fiber composition.
Rupture of IV Disc or ligaments in C-spine Due to the uncinate processes, the disc will herniate directly onto spinal cord as opposed to the spinal nerves.
Injury to Vertebral Artery Happens during violent extension of the neck. causes traumatic bleeding.
Created by: WeeG



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