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Bio 251 Spec. senses

Special senses chapter 15

QuestionAnswer
1. Part of the brain that is concerned with the conscious perception of smell: Lateral Olfactory area of the Temporal Lobe
2. Brain lobe that contains the olfactory cortex: Frontal and Temporal Lobes
3. Function of the fluid covering the olfactory epithelium: To dissolves odor molecules and aid in binds to olfactory neuron
4. Olfactory bulb, o. cortex, o. epithelium, o. tract … put in correct order. epithelium – Olfactory bulb – olfactory tract – olfactory cortex
5. Function of the olfactory hair membrane: receptor membrane that activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) opens ion channels in the cell membrane, resulting in an an action potential that terminates at cerebral cortex in temp lobe
6.a. Taste buds: papillae that don’t have them … papillae that have the most sensitive taste buds … location of the largest papillae with taste buds … primary tastes recognized by taste buds are … (Vallate) a.– Vallate. Largest, least numerous. 8-12 in V along border between anterior and posterior parts of the tongue. Have taste buds.
6.b. Taste buds: papillae that don’t have them … papillae that have the most sensitive taste buds location of the largest papillae with taste buds primary tastes recognized by taste buds are … b.Fungiform. Mushroom-shaped. Scattered irregularly over the superior surface of tongue. Look like small red dots interspersed among the filiform. Have taste buds.
6.c.Taste buds: papillae that don’t have them … papillae that have the most sensitive taste buds location of the largest papillae with taste buds primary tastes recognized by taste buds are … (Foliate) c.Foliate. Leaf-shaped. In folds on the sides of the tongue. Contain most sensitive taste buds. Decrease in number with age.
6.d.Taste buds: papillae that don’t have them … papillae that have the most sensitive taste buds location of the largest papillae with taste buds primary tastes recognized by taste buds are … (Filiform) d.Filiform. Filament-shaped. Most numerous. No taste buds. Replaced about every 10 days
7. Cranial nerve associated with the sense of taste: Facial nerve (CN VII) & Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
8.a. List some events that occur after food molecules enter a taste pore, ex: salt and sour SALT:Na+ diffuses in channels causing depolarization SOUR:H+ enters H channels causing depolarization. It can bind to liganded K channel Proventing K+ from entering cell
8.b. List some events that occur after food molecules enter a taste pore, ex: Bitter, sweet, and umami With the taste of SWEET and BITTER: taste binds to gustatory hairs causing depolarization through a G protein mechanism. With the taste of UMAMI: amino acids such as glutamate binds to gustatory hair cells.
9.a. Know the relative sensitivity level to the 5 kinds of taste: Sour, Salty SOUR: most sensitive on the lateral side of the tongue, Craved by humans SALTY: most sensitive on the tip of the tongue. lowest sensitivity
9.b. Know the relative sensitivity level to the 5 kinds of taste: Bitter, sweet, umami BITTER: most sensitive on the posterior aspect. It has the highest sensitivity. Alkaloids. SWEET: most sensitive on the tip of the tongue. lowest sensitivity. It is craved by humans. UMAMI: scattered sensitivity caused by amino acids. craved by humans
10. Describe the palpebral fissure: Space between the eyelids
11.a. Definition of sty Sty - A sty develops from imflamtion of the eyelash follicle or an eyelid oil gland that becomes clogged from excess oil, debris or bacteria.
11.b. Definition of Chalazion a bump in the eyelid caused by blockage of Meibomian(oil) gland. If Meibomian gland is blocked, oil inside builds up. The gland ruptures, the oil inside is released in the eyelid,causing inflammation.
11.c. Definition of Conjunctivitis The conjunctiva is exposed to bacteria and other irritants. Tears help protect the conjunctiva by washing away bacteria. Tears also contain enzymes and antibodies that kill bacteria. "Pink eye" refers to a viral infection of the conjunctiva. These infec
11.d. Definition of meibomian cyst A cyst of the Meibomian glands that are located in the eyelids
12. Corneal transplants are quite easy because: it is easily accessible and relatively easily removed; it is avascular and therefore does not need extensive circulation; & is also less immunologically active and less likely to be rejected than are other tissues
13. Anatomy of the choroid regarding: vascularization … thickness … association with the ciliary body, iris and sclera … The choroid (0.5mm) is the vascular layer containing connective tissue, of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera. The choroid provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer layers of the retina. ciliary body+iris+choroid = uvea
14. Anatomy of the ciliary body: type of muscles it contains … its association with the lens … its association with the sclera and iris … The inner layer is unpigmented until it reaches the iris, where it takes on pigment. It anchors the lens. It produces aqueous humor. It has smooth muscles
15. Rods & cones: Functions … Distribution in the retina … Rod responds to light. Found over most of retina, but not in fovea. Cones responds to color. Cones are numerous in fovea and macula lutea; fewer over rest of retina.
16.a.Optic disc Describe what it is … Describe its location … Describe the photoreceptors found in it Optic disc: is a blind-spot where there is no light sensitive rods or cones to respond to a light stimulus at this this point. It is located where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve( contain no photoreceptors).
16.b. fovea centralis, : Describe what it is … Describe its location … Describe the photoreceptors found in it … Fovea centralis: Is the retina of the human eye, responsible for sharp central vision located in the center of the macula region of the retina (contain cone photoreceptors).
16.c. macula: Describe what it is … Describe its location … Describe the photoreceptors found in it … macula: oval-shaped yellow spot near retina of eye(contains a lrg. Concentration of cone photoreceptors)
17. 3 colors to which cones are sensitive are: Green blue and red
18. Eye muscles: 3 extrinsic muscles are … 3 intrinsic muscles are … Three extrinsic muscles are the Lateral rectus - Medial rectus - Superior rectus - Inferior rectus - Inferior oblique - Superior oblique
19.a. Strabismus Strabismus - is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other.
19.b.Cataract Cataract - is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light.
19.c.Amblyopia Amblyopia -otherwise known as lazy eye, is a disorder of the visual system that is characterized by poor or indistinct vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal
19.d.Glaucoma Glaucoma is a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye
21. Myopia: Describe the condition … Describe the shape of the eye … The type of lens that corrects the condition … Medical procedures that correct myopia … near sightedness: close objects = clear, distant objects = blurry. Eyeball is too long, the focal point is too near the lens and the image is focused in front of the retina. Lasix, laser corneal sculpturing, and radial keratotomy= corrections for myopia
22. Hyperopia: Describe the condition … Describe the shape of the eye … Farsightedness, distant = clear, close = blurry. Disorder in which the cornea and lens system is optically too weak or eyeball is too short. Corrected by convex lenses that cause light rays to convDerge as they approach the eye, aka as "plus" lenses.
23. Opsin and rhodopsin: Describe how these chemicals function in rod cells … Rhodopsin is present in rod cells where there is little to dim lights. Once light hits the rod cells, rhodopsin breaks down into two chemicals, opsin and retinal.
24.a. Dark and light adaptation: Definition of dark adaption … . In the dark, the rod cells is unstimulated. Rhodopsin is inactive and the G-protien, transducin, is also inactive. Gated Na+ channels are open, because of attached cGMP, and Na+ diffuse into the rod cell.
24.b. Dark and light adaption: (Dark adaption) Describe the concentration of rhodopsin in the rod cells … 1. Glutamate is constantly released from the unstimulated rod cell. 2.Glutamate released from rod cells inhibits bipolar cells from releasing the neurotransmitters so that ganglionic cells do not generate action potentials.
24.c. Dark and light adaption Definition of light adaption IN THE LIGHT, the rod cell is stimulated. Rhodopsin and transducin are activated. Transducin activates cGMP phosphodiesterase, which catalyzes the conversion of cGMP, closing Na+ channels. Sodium ions are blocked from entering the cell = hyperpolarization
24.d. Dark and light adaption (light adaption) Describe the concentration of rhodopsin in the rod cells … Glutamate release from the stimulated rod cell decreases. 3. The bipolar cells, no longer inhibitied, release neurotransmitters, which stimulate ganglionic cells to generate action potentials.
25. Nanometer range of the visible light spectrum: 400- 700 nanometers
26. Seeing colors of an object: absorption vs. reflection … We cant see color that are absorbed by objects but we can see colors that are reflected off objects.
27. Our eyes can see millions of shades of colors because: Overlap in response to light, thus interpretations of gradation of color possible: several millions As light intensity decreases so does our ability to see color.
28. Ophthalmoscopic examination: 3 things the exam can reveal … Hypertension (high b/p), increased cerebrospinal fluid also referred as papilledema, and presence of cataracts.
29.a. Define convergence Convergence: the simultaneous inward movement of both eyes toward each other, usually in an effort to maintain single binocular vision when viewing an object.
29.b. Define Accommodation Accommodation: This occurs when the eye changes focus from looking at an object in the distance to reading a book, (or looking at another near object). The ciliary body is the eye muscle responsible for changing the shape and position of the eye lens.
29.c. Define Astigmatism Astigmatism: eye disorder in which the cornea (the clear tissue covering the front of the eye) is abnormally curved, causing out-of-focus vision.
29.d. Define Near point of vision Near point of vision: The point at which the eye can no longer focus the object and is seen as a blur. Usually 2-3 inches from the eye for children, 4-6 in. for a young adult, 20 for a 45 yr old adult
29.e. Define Far point of vision Far point of vision: the point at which the lens does not have to thicken for focusing to occur, and is normally 20 ft or more from the eye.
30. Describe 20/20 vision … 20/30 vision … 20/20 vision mean a person can see at 20 ft what people with normal vision can see at 20 ft. If the person with can see words only at 20 feet what people with normal vision can see at 30 ft , its considered 20/30
31. Macular degeneration: Describe the condition … Describe the location of blindspots in the visual field … macular degeneration results in a loss of acute vision in the center of the visual field not side vision(the macula). It occurs in “dry” and “wet” forms. It is a major cause of visual impairment in older adults (>50 years)
32. Leading cause of blindness in the world: Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness globally, except in the most developed countries. due to parisites in contaminated and dirty water
33. Ossicles of the middle ear: Names … Functions … Locations … What each attaches to … malleus to incus, incus to stapes: transmit vibrations from eardrum (Tympanic membrane), to oval window
34. Bony labyrinth: What is it? … Where is it located? … What does it contain? … -Network of canals within the middle ear. Contains chambers in the temporal bone • Cochlea: hearing • Vestibule: balance • Semicircular canals: balance Contains : Membranous Labyrinth, Perilymph, and Endolyph
35. Describe the function and location of these ear membranes: Tympanic … Tympanic membrane – three layered membrane vibrates in response to sound waves
35. Describe the function and location of these ear membranes: Vestibular Vestibular membrane – wall of the membranous labyrinth bordering the scala vestibuli
35. Describe the function and location of these ear membranes: Tectorial … Tectorial membrane – attached to the spiral lamina, are embedded with sterocilia to open gated k+ channels when vibrated.
35. Describe the function and location of these ear membranes: Basilar … Basilar membrane - wall of the membranous labyrinth bordering the scala tympani
36. Spiral organ of Corti: Describe its location … Its function … Within the cochlear duct of the cochlea. made of the tectoral+Basilar membranes. Receptor organ of vestibulocochlear nerve, sensitive to soundwaves that enter the inner ear for hearing
37. After the eardrum vibrates, list the order in which 4-5 other structures in the ear vibrate: tympanic membrane > malleus > incus > stapes > oval window > perilymph > basilar membrane > hair in the spiral organs > round window
38. Oval and round windows: Their location … Their function Both are on the border of the middle ear to inner ear. The oval window relays the waves of the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. The round window releases pressure from the cochlea in harmony with the oval window
39. Describe how cochlear neurons are stimulated: A sound wave hits the tympanic membrane, the pressure from the wave is relayed to the inner ear. Eventually the spiral organ within the cochlea of the inner ear will recieve the soundwave(stimulis) which will open Na channels causing an AP
40. Cochlear and vestibular nerves: Describe the kind of nerve impulses they conduct ...
Created by: 1034987515