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3 different compartments of the neck and their associated Cervical Fascia 1.Vertberal: Prevertebral fa.(surrounds vertebral column and associated muscles). 2.Visceral: Pretracheal fa.(surrounds thyroid, parathyroid, trachea, esophagus). 3.Vascular: Alar fa.(Common/Internal carotid A, Int Jugular V, Vagus N)**Carotid Sheath
Investing fascia most superficial, associated closely with platysma m.
Retropharyngeal space Located between the posterior Pretracheal fascia and the anterior Prevertebral fascia. Buccopharyngeal fascia is found here. Allows movement of visceral comp. on top of vertebral comp. **Allows spread of infection to superior mediastinum.
Location of structures in Carotid Sheath Medial: Common Carotid A. (int carotid A superiorly) Lateral: Internal jugular V. Posterior: Vagus N.
Ansa Cervicalis is embedded in what fascia? Anterolateral Carotid Sheath/Alar Fascia
Carotid Sinus Dilation of proximal part of internal carotid A. Innervated by CN IX and CN X. **Important Barroreceptor for BP regulation.
Carotid Body Ovoid mass locatde deep to bifrication of Common Carotid A. Innervated by CN IX and X. **Important Chemoreceptor for BL pH (Increase or decrease respiration to avoid acidosis or alkanosis).
Infrahyoid muscles inferior to hyoid, involved in swallowing via depression of the hyoid bone.
Suprahyoid muscles Superior to hyoid, involved in swallowing and speech via elevating the hyoid bone.
Muscles of the vertebral compartment(posterior to visceral compartment) Surrounded by Prevertebral fascia. 1.Longus Capitis (O: occipital bone). 2.Longus Colli (O: C1 anterior tubercle). 3. Rectus Capitis Anerior (O: ant. to occipital condyle). 4.Rectus Capitis Lateralis (O: jugular process of occipital bone). 5.Scalenes
Scalene Interval Between Ant. and Middle Scalene. Both the brachial plexus and subclavian A exit here. **they are slightly more protected
Important structures Anterior to Anterior Scalene 1.Phrenic N. 2.Suprascapular A. 3.Transverse Cervical A. 4.Subclavian V. **Makes them prone to injury
Parts of the Subclavian A. 1st: medial to Ant. scalene. 2nd: posterior to Ant.scalene. (Costocervical Trunk branches off) 3rd: lateral to Ant. Scalene
Branches from 1st part (medial) of Subclavian A. 1.Vertebral A. 2.Thyrocervical Trunk. 3.Internal Thoracic A.
Branches from 3rd part (lateral) of Subclavian A. 1.Transverse cervical A. 2.Suprascapular A. (if it doesn't come off thyrocervical trunk).
Does the internal Carotid Artery branch in the neck? NO! C'mon man
Posterior Branches off the External Carotid A. (in order) 1.Ascending Pharyngeal A.(More medial than posterior) 2.Occipital A. 3.Posterior Auricular A (last preterminal Branch off ECA).
Anterior Branches off External Carotid A. (in order) 1.Superior Thyroid A (first branch off ECA). 2.Lingual A.(just superior to Sup. Thy. A). 3.Facial A. (either in common ith Lingual A or immediately superior).
Terminal Branches of External Carotid A 1.Maxillary A (originates within the parotid gland, moves anteriorly deep to condylar neck of mandible to reach infratemporal fossa). 2.Superficial Temporal A (gives off a transverse facial A and then passes anteriorly to ext. auditory meatus).
Some Aggressive Lovers Find Odd Positions More Stimulating Branching pattern of ECA: SThyA, APA, LA, FA,OA,PAA, MA, STempA
Anterior Veins of neck (Anterior to Sternocleidomastoid) 1.Ext Jugular V. (Angle of mandible to subclavian V) 2.Communticating V (connects Ext Jugular to Ant Jugular vein). 3.Anterior Jugular V (anterior midline of neck, moves laterally at clavicle deep to SCM to empty into Ext Jugular V).
Posterior fibers of cervical plexus Sensory nerves: Lesser occipital (C2, ascends up occipital bone), Greater Auricular (C2-3, ascends up to ear), Transverse cervical (C2-3, transversely across neck), Supraclavicular (C3-4, descend and run superior to clavicle).
Erb's Point (Punctum Nervosum) Location where the nerves are exiting the neck, Would case severe pain if hit here.
Anterior Rami of Cervical Plexus Motor Nerves. The Phrenic N (C3-5), Ansa Cervicalis (C1-4).
Loops of Ansa Cervicalis Superior C1-2: innervates Geniohyoid and Thyrohyoid muscles.**Also gets fibers from CNXII. Inferior: C3-4 innervates infrahyoid muscles
Posterior cervical region Contains Trapezius m., cutaneous branches of posterior rami, suboccipital triangle (Deep)
Sternocleidomastoid region Contains SCM m., Ext Jugular V, Greater Auricular N, Transverse cervical N.
Posterior Triangle (Lateral Cervical region) Boundaries: SCM, Trapezius, clavicle. Can be divided into: Occipital triangle and subclavian triangle.
Contents of Occipital triangle 1.Spinal accessory n. 2.Erb's point (cervical plexus). 3.Trunks of brachial plexus. 4.Transverse cervical A (off the 3rd/lateral part of subclavian).
Contents of Subclavian Triangle 1. Ext jugular V. 2. Occipital A. (posterior branch of EJV). 3. Subclavian A and V (3rd/lateral part)
Anterior Triangle Boundaries: Median line of neck, SCM, mandible. Can be divided into: Submental, Submandibular, carotid, and muscular triangles
Contents of Submental Triangle submental lymph nodes, Anterior jugular v, Mylohyoid muscle.
Contents of Submandibular Triangle 1.submandibular gland. 2.Mylohyoid M. 3.Hypoglossus M. 4.Middle Pharyngeal constrictor M. 5.Hypoglossal N. 6.N to mylohyoid. 7.Facial A and V. 8.Submental A.
Contenst of Carotid Triangle Carotid sheath, Ansa Cervicalis, Deep cervical lymph nodes. **Bifrication of common carotid as most of the branches of the External Carotid A.
Created by: WeeG



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