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Vocabulary Ch. 12

Skin: The Integumentary System

integumentary system Makes up the outer covering of the body, serves many important functions beyond appearance.
sabaceous glands Also known as OIL GLANDS, secrete sebum(oil) which lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin.
sweat glands Help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat.
hair Fibers are rodlike structures composed of tightly fused, dead protein cells filled with hard keratin. Helps control the loss of body heat.
nail Also known as UNGUIS, protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger.
derma/cutaneous Used to describe the skin.
epithelial tissues Form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body.
epidermis Is the outermost layer of the skin, is made up of several specialized epithelial tissues.
squamous epithelial tissue Forms the upper layer, consists of flat, scaly cells that are continuouly sloughed off(shed).
squamous Scalelike
keratin Is a fibrous, water-repellent protein.
melanin Brown to black pigment that helps protects the skin against some of the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
ultraviolet(UV) Refers to light that is beyond the visible spectrum at the violet end.
dermis Also known as the CORIUM, is the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis.
tactile Pertaining to touch.
perception Is the ability to recognize sensory stimulus.
collagen Which means glue, is a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material.
mast cells Are found in the connective tissue of the drmis, respond to injury or infection by producing and releasing substance including heparin and histamine.
heparin Is released in response to injury, is an anticoagulant.
histamine Is released in response to allergens, causes itching and increased mucus secretion.
subcutaneous layer Located just below the skin, connects the skin to the surface muscles.
adipose Means fat.
cellulite Is nontechnical term for the subcutaneous deposit of fat, especially in the thighs and buttocks.
lipocytes Also known as FAT CELLS, are prodominant in the subcutaneous layer, where they manufacture and store large quantities of fat.
sebaceous glands Are located in the dermis layer of the skin and are closely associated with hair follicles.
sebum Is released through ducts opening into the hair follicles.
mammary glands Are modified sebaceous glands, are often classified with the integumentary system.
sweat glands Are tiny, coiled glands found on almost all body surfaces.
sweat Also known as PERSPIRATION, is secreted by sweat glands and is made up of 99 percent water plus some salt and metabolic waste products.
pespiring Is a means of excreting excess water. It also cools the body as the sweat evaporates into the air.
hidrosis Means the production and excretion of sweat.
hair follicles The sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers.
arretor pili Also known as the ERECTOR MUSCLES, are tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect.
nail body Is translucent, is closely molded to the surface of the underlying tissues.
nail bed Joins the nail body to the underlying connective tissue, nourishes the nail.
free edge Is the portion of the nail not attached to the nail bed, extends beyond the tip of the finger or toe.
cuticle Is a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root.
lunula Is a pale half-moone-shaped region at the nail root and is generally found in the thumbnail and in varying degrees in other nails.
root Fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin.
dermatologist Specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the skin.
cosmetic surgeon Also known as PLASTIC SURGEON, specializes in the surgical restoration and reconstruction of body structures.
acne vulgaris Is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin in or near the sebadeous glands.
comedo Is a lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle.
sebaceous cyst Is a cyst of a sebaceous gland that contains yellow, fatty material.
seborrhea Is any of several common skin conditions in which there is an overproduction of the sebum.
seborrheic dermatitis Is an inflammation of the upper layers of the skin, caused by seborrhea.
seborrheic keratosis Is a benign flesh-colored, borwn, or black skin tumor.
anhidrosis Is the condition of lacking or being without sweat.
hyperhidrosis Is a condition of excessive sweating.
diaphoresis Means profuse, but not necessarily excessive, sweating.
miliaria Also known as HEAT RASH/PRICKLY HEAT, is an inflammation caused by trapped sweat.
hirsutism Means abnormal hairiness.
alopecia Also known as BALDNESS, is the partial or complete loss of hair.
alopecia areata Is an autoimmune disorder in which there are well-defined bald areas, usually on the scalp or face.
alopecia capitis totalis Is an uncommon condition characterized by the loss of all the hair on the scalp.
alopecia universalis Is the total loss of hair on all parts of the body.
female pattern baldness Is a condition in which the hair thins in the front and on the sides and sometimes the crown.
male pattern baldness Is a common hair loss patter in men, with the hairline receding from the front to the back until only a horseshoe-shaped area of hair remains in the back and on the temples.
clubbing Is abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips.
koilonychia Also known as SPOON NAIL, is a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out.
onychia Also known as ONYCHITIS, is an inflammation of the matrix of the nail.
onychocryptosis Means ingrown toenail.
onychomycosis Is any fungal infection of the nail.
anychophagia Means nail biting or nail eating.
paronychia Is an acuter or chronic infection of the skin fold at the margin of a nail.
subungual hematoma Is usually caused by an injury, is a collection of blood trapped in the tissues under a nail.
albinism Is an inherited deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes due to abnormality in production of melanin.
chloasma Also known as MELASMA/MASK OF PREGNANCY, is a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face.
dyschromia Is any disorder of the pigmentation of the skin or hair.
melanosis Is any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body.
vitiligo Is a condition in which a loss of melanocytes results in whitish areas of skin bordered by normally pigmented areas.
lesion Is a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury.
contusion Is an injury that does not break the skin and is characterized by swelling.
crust Is a collection of dried serum and cellular debris.
ecchymosis Also known as BRUISE, is a purplish area caused by hemorrhaging(bleeding) within the skin.
macule Is a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1cm in diameter.
nevi Also known as MOLES, are small dark skin growths that develop from melanocytes in the skin.
dysplastic nevi Atypical moles that may develop into skin cancer.
nodule Is a small, solid bump like a cyst.
papule Is a small, solid, raised skin lesion that is less than 0.5cm in diameter.
petachiae Which are small pinpoint hemorrhages, are smaller versions of ecchymoses(bruises).
plaque Is a solid, raised area of skin that is different from the area around it and greter than 0.5cm in diameter.
scale Is a flaking or dry patch made up of excess dead epidermal cells.
verrucae Also known as WARTS, are skin lesions caused by the human papillomavirus.
plantar warts Develop on the sole of the foot.
wheal(WHEEL) Is a smooth, slightly elevated, swollen area that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin and usually is accompanied by itching.
abscess Is a localized collection of purulen exudate(pus) within a circumscribed area.
bulla Is a large, circumscribed elevation of skin containing fluid that is more than 0.5cm in diameter.
cyst Is a closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.
pustule Is a small, circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus.
vesicle Is a circumscribed elevation of skin containing fluid that is less than 0.5cm in diameter, such as a small blister.
abrasion Is an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away.
fissure The skin is a groove or cracklike sore.
laceration Is a torn or jagged wound or an accidental cut.
puncture wound Is a deep hole made by a sharp object such as a nail.
ulcer Is an open sore or erosion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss and usually with inflammation.
decubitus ulcer Also known as PRESSURE ULCER/BEDSORE, is an ulcerated area caused by prolonged pressure that cuts off circulation to the body.
port-wine stain Is a large, reddish purple discolaration of the face or neck.
strawberry hemanigioma This dark, reddish purple growth is a benign tumor made up of newly form blood vessels. Is a soft, raised birthmark.
dermatitis Is an inflammation of the upper layers of skin.
contact dermatitis Is a localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant or allergen.
dermatosis Is a general term used to denote any skin lesion or group of lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation.
eczema Is an acute or chronic skin inflammation characterized by erythema, papules, visicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabes, and possibly itching.
erythema Is any redness of the skin such as a nervous blush, inflammation, or mild sunburn.
lupus erythematosus Also known as SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS(SLE), is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk.
lipedema Is an abnormal swelling due to the collection of fat and fluid under the skin, usuall between the calf and ankle.
pruritus Also known as ITCHING, is associated with most forms of dermatitis.
psoriasis Is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the skin characterized by red papules covered with silvery scales that occur predominantly on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, and buttocks.
pupura Is a condition characterized by hemorrhage into the skin that couses spontaneous bruising.
rosacea Is a chronic condition of unknown cause that produces redness, tiny pimples, and broken blood vessels.
scleroderm Is an autoimmune disorder that causes abnormal tissue thickening ususally starting on the hands, feet, or face.
urticiaria Also known as HIVES, is a skin condition characterized by localized areas of swelling accompanied by itching that is associated with an allergic reaction.
xeroderma Is excessivley dry skin.
carbuncle Is a cluster of furuncles(boils) that result in extensive sloughing of skin and scar formation.
cellulitis Is a diffuse infection of connective tissue with severe inflammation within the layers of the skin.
diffuse Means widespread.
furuncles Also known as BOILS, are large tender, swollen, areas caused by staphylococcal infection around the hair follicles.
gangrene Is tissue necrosis(death) that is usually associated with a loss of circulation.
putrefaction Is decay that produces foul-smelling odors.
impetigo Is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture.
tinea Also known as RINGWORM, is a fungal skin disease affeting different areas of the body.
tinea capitis Is found on the scalps of children.
tinea pedis Also known as althletes food, is found between the toes and on the feet.
tinea cruris Also known as JOCK ITCH, is found in the genital area.
dermatomycosis Also known as TINEA VERSICOLOR, is a fungal infection that causes white to light brown areas on the skin.
infestation Is the dwelling of a parasite on external surface tissue.
scabies Is a skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite.
pediculosis Is an infestation with lice.
pediculosis capitis Is an infestation with head lice.
pediculosis corporis Is an infestation with body lice.
pediculosis pubis Is an infestation with lice in the pubic hair and pubic region.
callus Is a thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing.
clavus/corn Is a callus in the keratin layer of the skin covering the joints of the toes.
cicatrix Is a normal scar resultin from the healing of a wound.
granulation tissue Normally forms during the healing of a wound to create what will become scar tissue.
granuloma Is a general term used to describe small knotlike swellings of granulation tissue.
keloid Is an abnormally raised or thickened scar that is usually smooth and shiny.
keratosis Is any skin growth, such as a wart or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin.
lipoma Is a benign fatty deposit under the skin that causes a bump.
papilloma Is a benign epithelial tumor that projects from the surrounding surface.
polyp Is a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroomlike growth from the surface of a mucous membrane, such as a polyp in the nose.
rhinophyma Also known as BULBOUS NOSE, Is hyperplasia(overgrowth) of the tissues of the nose.
skin tags Are small felsh-colored or light brown growths that hang from the body by fine stalks.
actinic keratosis Is a precancerous skin lesion caused by excessive exposure to the sune.
basal cell carcinoma Is a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis.
epithelioma Is a benign or malignant tumor originating in the epidermis that may occur on the skin or mucous membranes.
malignant melanoma Is skin cancer derived from cells capable of forming melanin.
squamous cell carcinoma Begins as a malignant tumor of the squamous cells of the epithelium, but it can quickly spread to the other body systems.
burn Is an injury to body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation.
biopsy Is the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis.
incisional biopsy A piece, but not all, of the tumor or lesion is removed.
excisional biopsy The entire tumor or lesion and margin of surrounding tissue are removed.
needle biopsy A hollow needle is used to remove a core of tissue for examination.
exfoliative cytology Is a biopsy technique in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope.
sunscreen Blocks out the harmful ultraviolet B(UVB) rays is sometimes measured in terms of the stregth of the sun protection factor(SPF).
cauterization Is the destruction of tissue by burning for therapeutic purposes.
curettage Is the removal of material from the surface by scraping.
chmical peel Also known as CHEMABRASION, is the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scaring, fine wrinkling, and genral keratoses.
cryosurgery Is the destruction or elimination of abnormal tissue cells, such as warts or tumors, through the application of extreme cold, often by using liquid nitrogen.
debridement Is the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing.
dermabrasion Is a form of abrasio involving the use of revolving wire brushes or sandpaper.
incision and drainage(I&D) Involves incision(cutting open) of a lesion, such as an abscess, and draining the contents.
Mohs' chemosurgery Is the use of a zinc chloride paste to remove recurrent tumors and scarlike basal cell carcinomas, with a minimum of normal tissue loss but complete removal of the tumor.
laser Is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
rhinophyma Is treated by using a carbon dioxide laser to reshape the nose by vaporizing the excess tissue.
port-wine stain Is treated using short pulses of laser light to remove the birthmark.
tattoos Are removed by using lasers that target particular colors.
blepharoplasty Also known as a LID LIFT, is the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids.
dermatoplasty Also known as SKIN GRAFT, is the replacement of damaged skin with tissue taken from a donor site on the patient's body.
lipectomy Is the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin.
liposuction Is the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction.
rhytidectomy Also known as FACELIFT, is the surgical removal of excess skin for the elimination of wrinkles.
sclerotherapy Used in the treatment of spider veins(small veins that can be seen through the skin), involves injecting a sclerosing solution(saline solution)into the ein being treated.
Created by: caprinag1994