Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


BIO201 - Ch8 - Joints - Marieb/Hoehn - Rio Salado - AZ

Articulations Joints - where 2 or more bones meet.
Weakest part of the skeleton. Joints
Joints are classified how? By their structure & function.
Types of structural classifications of joints. Fibrous, cartilaginous, & synovial joints.
Functional classifications of joints. Synarthroses, amphiarthroses, & diarthroses.
Synarthroses Immovable Joints
Amphiarthroses Slightly-movable Joints
Diarthroses Freely-movable Joints
Where do diarthroses predominate? Limbs
Fibrous joints are usually __. Immovable Joints
Which two joints have no cavity? Fibrous & cartilaginous Joints
3 Types of fibrous joints. Sutures, syndesmoses, & gomphoses.
Ossified sutures in bones are __. Synostoses.
In syndesmoses, bones are connected by __. Ligaments.
The amount of movement in a syndesmoses joint depends on? Length of its ligament's connecting fibers.
Give one example of an amphiarthrosis. Joint between tibia & fibula.
Gomphoses Peg-in-socket fibrous joint.
One example of a gomphoses. Articulation of a tooth w/bony alveolar socket.
Name of ligament that holds teeth in socket. Periodontal Ligament.
Cartilaginous Joints Articulating bones are united by cartilage.
2 Types of cartilaginous joints. Synchondroses & symphyses
Virtually all synchondroses are __. Synarthrotic
Synchondrosis Plate or bar of hyaline cartilage that unites bones.
Most common example of synchondroses. Epiphyseal plate connecting diaphysis/epiphysis region in long bones.
Which joint is a temporary joint? Epiphyseal plate.
Joint between costal cartilage of first rib & manubrium of sternum. Synchondroses.
Symphyses Articular surfaces covered w/hyaline that is fused to pad of fibrocartilage.
Name a symphyses joint. Intervertebral joint.
Synovial Joint Articulating bones separated by fluid-containing cavity.
All synovial joints are __. Diarthryoses - freely moving.
5 Distinguishing features of synovial joints. (1) Articular cartilage, (2) Joint cavity, (3) articular capsule, (4) synovial fluid, (5) reinforcing ligaments.
What is unique to synovial joints? Joint cavity.
Synovial membrane is composed of __. Loose connective tissue.
Weeping lubrication. When synovial fluid lubricates surfaces of cartilage & nurishes cells.
Intracapsular ligaments are covered w/__. Synovial membrane.
Articular discs in synovial joints occur __. In knee, jaw, & other joints.
Bursae Flattened fibrous sacs lined w/synovial fluid.
Where are bursae common? Where ligaments, skin, tendons, or bones rub.
Tendon sheath. An elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon.
3 Stability factors in synovial joints. (1) Shape of articular surfaces, (2) number & position of ligaments, & (3) muscle tone.
What determines what movements are possible at a joint? The shape of articular surfaces.
How far can a ligament stretch? 6% before it snaps.
Most important joint stabilizing factor. Muscle tone & muscle tendons.
Origin Place where muscle attaches to less moving bone.
Insertion Place where muscle is attached to movable bone.
Insertion moves __ their orgin. Toward
Plane Joints Flat articular surfaces that allow gliding motions - intercarpals/intertarsal joints & vertebrae.
What is the only example of nonaxial joints? Gliding joints - vertebrae, intercarpal & intertarsal.
Hinge Joint Motion along a single plane - flexion & extension - elbow & interphalangeal joints.
Piviot Joints Rounded end of one bone protrudes into ring of another bone/ligament - uniaxial rotation.
Give two examples of a pivot joint. Atlas & dens. Radioulnar joint.
Condyloid Joints Ovalsurface fits into depression - Permits angular motion - biaxial.
Give 2 examples of condyloid joints. Radiocarpal (wrist) & knucle joints.
Saddle Joints Shaped like saddle - twiddling thumbs.
Ball-and-Socket Joints Spherical head & cuplike socket - multiaxial.
Give 2 examples of ball-and-socket joints. Shoulder & hips.
What is the largest & most complex joint in the body? Knee - allows extension, flexion, & some rotation.
How many joints in knee? 3 - Femoropatellar, tibiofemoral, & menisci.
The menisci helps prevent __. Side-to-side rocking of femur on tibia.
Name one way knee joint is unique. Only partially enclosed by a capsule.
What muscle is tapped by physicians in knee-jerk? Patellar ligament.
Which bursa is often injured when bumping knee? Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa.
What prevents lateral or medial knee rotation? Fibular & tibial collateral ligaments.
What stabilizes posterior of knee joint? Oblique popliteal ligament.
ACL of knee Attaches to anterior - prevents hyperextension of knee - Anterior Cruciate Ligament.
PCL of knee Attached to posterior to prevent backward displacement - Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Knee capsule heavily reinforced by strong tendons of the __ muscles. Quadriceps.
Which muscle "unlocks" the knee? Popliteus Muscle
Knee is very vulnerable to __ blows. Horizontal
3 C's of common knee injuries. Collateral ligaments, cruciate ligaments, & cartilages (menisci).
Most ACL injuries occur when __. Twisting a hyperextended knee.
Elbow Joint Hinge that allows flexion & extension only.
What capsule surrounds head of radius? Anular Ligament
Side-to-side movements in elbow restricted by which ligaments? Ulnar collateral ligament (medially) & radial collateral ligament (laterally).
Name 2 muscles whose tendons cross the elbow joint. Biceps & triceps.
What is the most freely moving joint in the body? Shoulder (glenohumeral) joint.
The should joint is a __ joint. Ball-and-socket.
Where is the glenoid cavity? Scapula & used for shoulder joint.
Coracohumeral Ligament In shoulder - helps support weight of upper limb.
What is the "suerstabilizer" of shoulder joint? Long head of biceps brachii muscle of arm.
What is a labrum? Circular rim of fibrocartilage that helps hold joint.
What kind of joint is the hip (coxal) joint? Ball-and-socket joint
Hip joint is made up of which bones? Head of femur & acetabulum of hip.
Sacroiliac Joint made of which bones? Sacrum & coxal bone.
What 2 bones make up knee joint? Femur & tibia
What bones make up the ankle? Tibia & fibula w/talus
What contributes most to stability of hip? Deep socket that encloses femoral head & strong ligaments.
Where is the TMJ? Jaw joint - anterior to ear.
What 2 bones form the TMJ? Mandibular condyle & temporal bone.
What is lateral excursion? Grinding of posterior teeth - movement by mandible - unique to mammals.
Sprain When ligaments of a joint are torn/stretched.
Ligaments are poorly __. Vascularized.
Arthroscopic Surgery Surgery through small scope to repair ligament or remove cartilage fragment.
The most common chronic arthritis. Osteoarthritis - OA
Crepitus Crunching noise made when articular surfaces rub together.
Pannus Inflamed & thickened synovial membrane.
Gouty arthritis Gout - articulating bone ends fuse due to urate crystals in soft joints.
Bones form from embryotic __. Mesenchyme.
Ankylosing Spondylitis "Poker Back" - fused vertebra by fibrous tissue.
Arthrology Study of Joints
Chondromalacia Patellae Softening of cartillage on posterior patellar surface.
Synovitis Inflammation of synovial membrane of joint.
What joints enable you to grasp things? Saddle Joints
Which bone doesn't form a joint? Hyoid Bone
Dorsiflexion Flexion of ankle so superior of foot approaches shin.
The only movement allowed between 1st two cervical vertebrae is __. Rotation
What constitutes the hinge for the elbow? Gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear noch.
In rheumatoid arthritis __ fluid increases. Synovial
Moving the arm full circle is an example of __. Circumduction
Dislocations are often accompanied by __. Sprains
Eversion is a special movement of the __. Foot
Supination of forearm. Hand turned from posterior to anterior.
A hinge joint movement is __. Uniaxial
Articular surfaces of synovial joints play a __ role in joint stability. Minor
Semilunar cartilage pads in knees. Menisci
What ligament holds the radius to ulna at the proximal. Annular ligament
Prevents hyperextension of knee. Cruciate ligament
Synovial fluid contains __ acid. Hyaluronic
__ are cartilaginous joints. Synchondroses
__ are fibrous connective tissue in structure. Syndesmosis
A __ joint permits a slight degree of movement. Symphysis
Only movement allowed in pivot joint. Uniaxial rotation.
__ is moving a limb away from the body. Abduction
Pointing toes is __. Plantar flexion
Osteochondral Grafting Healthy bone & cartilage removed from one body part & transplanted to injured joint.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Healthy chondrocyte transplanted to joint.
Created by: Ladystorm



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards