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Anat, Embyology..

CMI - Fall 2011

When does a female usually find out she is pregnant? 4-6 wks
What give rise to strux of the head and neck (embryologically)? Pharyngeal arches
What are situated bw pharyngeal arches? Pharyngeal clefts
When are most ear structures formed by? 15th week of gestation (& then continue to grow and develop) -complete shape by 20th wk
Around the 15th wk of gestation, an abn outer ear implies? Middle or inner ear abn
What period of gestation is the most critical for head and neck structures? First 8 wks
What are the pharyngeal arches also known as? Branchial arches
How many pharyngeal arches? 5
Each pharyngeal pouch has capability of? Artery, Cartilage, Nerve, Muscle
What is the purpose of having bone surround the ear structures? Protection and sound is less distorted
Where does the inner ear START? After the stapes
What is the pinna made of? Why is it shaped the way it is? Elastic cartilage -Funnels sound waves in (why we don't hear everything the same)
What are the layers of the tympanic membrane? Lateral=Cutaneous Intermediate=Fibrous Medial=Mucous
Nerves supplying the typanic membrane? Vagus, Glossopharyngeal, Mandibular
What is the main blood supply source to the ossicles? External carotid A
Which one of the ossicles receives the least blood supply and can often become necrosed? Long process of incus
What is the relation of cartilage and osseus material w/ ext auditory canal and eustachian tube? EAC= 1/3cart, 2/3osseus ET= 1/3osseus, 2/3cart
Eustachian tube position at birth vs adulthood? Horizontal at birth, 45 degrees in adulthood
The cartilagenous part of the Etube is lined with? Just like? Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epi; same as in posterior part of nose and the sinuses
Which muscle serves to open the Etube in children and what is the innervation? Tensor palati; 5th CN=Trigeminal N
Which muscles serve to open the Etube in adults and what is the innervation? -Tensor palati (CN 5) -Levator veli palatini (Vagus nerve)
Is it easier to expel air from the middle ear, or get it in? Expel
When sound reaches the ossicles and causes them to vibrate, they transmit to the inner ear structure caalled? Cochlea
What constitutes conductive hearing? Pinna to Stapes
What constitutes sensorineural hearing? After stapes -- vibration causes fluid to move and sets hair cells in motion and an electrical signal is sent along auditory nerve to brain which translates into sounds :)
The primitive pharynx is one tube...and becomes? 2 - so a problem in one becomes two/in both
What is the lip composed of? Primarily muscle and covered by skin and mucosa
What is the name of the border where the lip stops and it meets the normal skin? Vermillion border
In newborns, they have a nasolaryngeal connection via? Close approx of epiglottis to posterior palate, making a continuous airway
For first few months of life: nasal or oral breathing? NASAL
What are the two arches in the back of the mouth and what sits bw them? Palatoglossal and Palatopharyngeal arches -Palatine tonsil sits inbw
Where is the larynx, in relation to vertebrae? In front of 4,5,6 cervical vertebrae
Which cartilage is responsible for opening and closing the larynx? Arytenoid cartilage
Which vocal cords are more superior to the other? False VC superior to True VC....False VC serve as attachment for true VC
Innervation to larynx? 2 branches of vagus nerve: Superior laryngeal and inferior (recurrent) laryngeal nerves
Vocal cords contain very few lymphatic channels, where do they drain? Deep cervical nodes
Fxns of the larynx? Respiration, protection, phonation
At what point after birth does a child's front teeth start to poke thru? 4-8mo
After 6 mo of age, how many new teeth each 4 mos? 4
At what age are all baby teeth in place? 2.5
At what age do you start losing teeth? What age are all baby teeth gone? 6; 13
The wisdom teeth are aka? 3rd molars
What is the primary blood supply to the nose? Ext and Int carotid
Innervation to nose? -Anterior ethmoid ganglion -Sphenopalatine
WHere does the maxillary sinus open to? Middle meatus of nose
Frontal sinus(es) drain to? Middle meatus of nose (& via ethmoid air cells)
THe sphenoid sinus sits below what structure? Sella turcica which houses pituitary gland
Sphenoid sinus drains to? Superior nasal meatus
Development of paranasal sinuses begins when? 3 wks gestation
Ethmoid sinuses present when and developed when? BIrth;3y.o.
Maxillary sinuses present when and dev when? Birth; 3y.o.
Sphenoid sinus present when and dev when? 3 y.o; 12 y.o
Frontal sinuses present when and dev when? 8 yo; 12 yo
What is mucus produx like per day? Not ill=500mL Ill=1 L
Created by: ferrier.kath
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