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Chapter Seven Muscul

The Muscular System

QuestionAnswer
What is a SPRAIN? Ligament Injury
What is a MYALGIA? MUSCLE PAIN OR TERNDERNESS
What is PARALYSIS? PARTIAL OR TOTAL LOSS OF THE ABILITY OF VOLUNTARY MUSCLES TO MOVE
What is HYPERTROPHY? Increase in muscle diameter and strength
What is ATROPHY? DECREASE IN MUSCLE SIZE, MUSCLE WASTING
What is TONUS? PATIAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION
What is SPASM? SUDDEN, SEVERE MUSCLE CONTRACTION
What is MUSCULAR DISTROPHY? INHERITED DISORDER THAT CAUSES DETERIORATION OF MUSCLE FIBERS, MOST COMMON IN BOYS
What is ELECTROMYOGRAM? Recording of electrical activity of a muscle
What is a STRAIN? INJURY TO A TENDON OR MUSCLE
MUSCLES MAKE UP ALMOST ______ THE WEIGHT OF THE BODY. HALF
The SIZE of your MUSCLES is influenced by what? HOW MUCH YOU USE THEM
Individual elongated muscle cells can be _____ inches, or 30 ________ in length. 12 inches ==== 30 centimeters
By the age of _______ the number and diameter of muscle fibers begin to decrease. 40 years old
By the age of 80, what percentage of the muscle mass may be gone. 50%
What is the general term MUSCLE MEAN? CONTRACTILE TISSUE
Muscle cells are _________________ and resemble fibers such as in clothing ELONGATED
What is MUSCLE TISSUES contructed of? BUNDLES OF MUSCLE FIBERS
What is the 3 MAJOR TYPES OF MUSCELS? SKELETAL - SMOOTH - CARDIAC
SKELETAL MUSCLES are VOLUNTARY or INVOLUNTARY? VOLUNTARY MUSCLES
Fibers in the skeletal muscle appear to be STRIPED and are therefore called STRIATED MUSCLE
Smooth Muscles are VOLUNTARY or INVOLUNTARY INVOLUNTARY - This means that it is NOT under our CONSCIOUS CONTROL
Why is it called SMOOTH MUSCLE Because it DOES NOT HAVE THE STRIPED APPEARANCE of skeletal muscles.
Because it is the MUSCLE OF ORGANS it is sometimes called the VISCERAL MUSCLE
T/F = Smooth muscle allows for the internal movement of food (peristalsis). TRUE
It also facilitates the movement of blood by changing the diameter of the blood vessels also called vasocontriction and vasodilation
Smooth muscle also facilitates the movement of air by ..... changing the diameter of the airways found in our lungs.
What is the 3rd Type of Muscle CARDIAC MUSCLE
Does the CARDIAC MUSCLE have a STRIATED APPEARANCE? YES
Where is the CARDIAC MUSCLE SOLELY FOUND? IN THE HEART
The CARDIAC MUSCLE makes up the walls of the heart and causes it to do what? CONTRACT
These contractions cause the ___________ movement (circulation) of blood within the body. INTERNAL MOVEMENT
CARDIAC MUSCLE is like SMOOTH MUCSLE it is an INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE
SKELETAL MUSCLE ARE ATTACHED TO _____ and provide ___________ for your body. BONES - MOVEMENT
What do TENDONS DO? They are FIBROUS TISSUE that usually attach SKELETAL MUSCLE TO BONES.
What do LIGAMENTS do? THEY ATTACH BONE TO BONE
Muscle contraction is the ability of a muscle to SHORTEN WITH FORCE
Smooth muscle is found in all the following except? THE HEART = Airways,Digestive System,Blood Vessels
Which type of muscle is striated? SKELETAL AND CARDIAC MUSCLE
Strations are? MUSCLE CELLS
Muscles that can attach to a bone or soft tissue witout a tendon is called _____ and are broad sheets of connective tissue. aponeuroses (APP OH NEW ROH SES)
What is AGONIST/PRIMARY MOVERS? THE MUSCLES THAT CONTRACTS WHILE ANOTHER MUSCLE RELAXES AT THE SAME TIME TO CAUSE MOVEMENT
What is the POINT OF ORIGIN? The END of a MUSCLE THAT IS ATTACHED TO A STATIONARY BONE
WHAT IS THE POINT OF INSERTION? THE END OF A MUSCLE THAT IS ATTACHED TO THE MOVING BONE, WITH THE MUSCLE ACTION MOVING THE INSERTION TOWARD THE ORIGIN.
WHAT IS SYNERGISTIC? MUSCLES THAT CAN ASSIST IN MOVEMENT (EX Muscles in the hands and wrist)
What is the most important SKELETAL MUSCLE that contols our breathing? DIAPHRAGM
This DOME SHAPED muscle seperates what 2 cavities? ABDOMINAL and THORACIC
The diaphragm is responsible for what? Performing the major work of bringing air into the lungs
Looking right and left at a stop sign is what correct body movement? ROTATION - Circular movement that occurs around an axis
The first movement in curling a weight is called what? FLEXION or ADDUCTION
Returning the weight from the curled position to your side is called what? EXTENSION or ABDUCTION
The muscle that causes a movement is the? AGONISTS OR PRIMARY MOVERS
The muscle attachment that does not move during muscle action is the ____________. POINT OF ORIGIN
The thin myofilament needed for muscle contraction is called ACTIN
The 2 ingredients needed for crossbridges to form and break are ______________ and ___________ ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and Calcium (Ca)
The fundamental unit of muscle contraction is the_____ SARCOMERES
Sodium flowing into muscle fibers is triggered by the binding of _______________ released from neurons. Acetylcholine (ACh)
During contraction _________ heads bind to ______________ myofilaments. Myosin; actin
The __________ are the primary knee flexors. HAMSTRINGS
The __________, knee extensors, originate on the __________ and insert on the __________. Quadriceps; Pelvis; patella & tibia
The __________ originates on the sternum and clavical and inserts on the mastoid process. STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
This muscle inserts via the ACHILLIS TENDON GASTROCNEMIUS
The ______, an elbow flexor, is the antagonist of the ________an elbow extensor. Biceps Brachii; Triceps Brachii
What is TONUS? This is the PARTIAL CONTRACTION OF A MUSCLE WITH RESISTANCE TO STRETCHING
What is HYPERTROPHY? Refers to increased growth or development
What is ATROPHY? When MUSCLES waste away from lack of use.
Where is VISERAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE FOUND? In ALL Organs of the body EXCEPT THE HEART (Stomach, digestive system, uterus and in blood vessels, and bronchial airways
What is the difference between VASODILATE and VASOCONSTRICT? Vasodilate = when blood vessels get larger Vasoconstrict = When blood vessels get smaller
What is INTERCALATED DISCS? Structures that connect heart tissues cells to facilitate a smooth contraction
Dose CARDIAC MUSCLE regenerate after a SEVERE DAMAGE? NO
What does MYALGIA MEAN Pain or TENDERNESS in a muscle
What is FIBROMYALGIA? One of the most common musculoskeletal disorders affecting women under age of 40. (Linked to chronic fatigue syndrome)
What is ATAXIA? A condition in which the muscle are irregular in their actions or there is a lack of cordination
What is PARALYSIS? Partial or TOTAL LOSS of the ability to move a muscle
What is a SPASM or CRAMPS When a muscle contracts involuntarily suddenly and violently for a prolonged amount of time.
What is a SPRAIN? A TEAR or BREAK in a ligament
What is a STRAIN? They are TEARS or INJURY in the muscle and tendons
A common running related inflammatory condition of the extensor muscles and surroundings tissues are called SHIN SPLINTS
When does a HERNIA OCCUR? When there is a TEAR in the muscle wall and an organ of the body PROTRUDES through the OPENING
Tendinitis is a condition in which..... TENDONS BECOME DAMAGED
What is MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY An INHERITED MUSCULAR DISEASE in which muscle fibers DEGENERATE and the is a PROGRESSIVE muscular weakness.
Muscular Disorders can be diagnosed how? By using a Electromyography (EMG) in which a muscle or group of muscles are stimulated with and electrical impulse.
What is a NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE When a disease affects more than one system
What is MYASTHENIA GRAVIS? Patient exhibits gradually increasing profound muscle weakness. The first symptom of this disease is drooping of 1 or both eyelids
What is GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME? Disorder of the PERIPHERAL Nervous System that causes flaccid paralysis (limp muscles) and the loss of reflexes.
What is TETANUS? Creates Rigid Paralysis - With this type of disease any minor stimulus can cause muscles to go into a major spasm.
A sudden or violent muscle contraction is called a what SPASM or CRAMP
Partial or Total Loss of voluntary muscle use is called? Paralysis
A tear in the muscle wall through which an organ can protrude is an HERNIA
The body stores a carbohydrate called _________ in the muscle; it can be converted to a usable energy. GLYCOGEN
__________ means pain or tenderness in the muscle MYALGIA
Elbow flexion is the action of the ____ muscle. Biceps Brachii
Created by: spoon6464