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A&P 241 Neurons

Unit 10- Neurons; Veselovsky

Define CNS Central Nervous System; consists of the brain and spinal cord; receives, interprets, and responds to data.
Define PNS Peripheral Nervous System; connects the central nervous system to the body.
Somatic Region The outer portion of the PNS; skin, skeleton, and skeletal muscles.
Visceral Region The inner portion of the PNS; internal organs, glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.
Receptors Detect internal or external stimuli
Exteroceptors attached to the somatic PNS; receive stimuli from the external environment (eyes, ears...)
Proprioceptors somatic PNS; receive stimuli from within the somatic region (muscle spindles, tendon organs...)
Interoceptors or visceroceptors attached to the visceral PNS; receive stimuli from within the visceral region (carotid bodies and aortic bodies)
Effectors produce the body's responses
Glial cells or neuroglia form the nervous system's stroma (connective tissue). Supports and protects the system's neurons.
Ependymal Cells line the chambers and cavities of the CNS that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Assist with its circulation.
Oligodendrocytes in the CNS white matter. Produce myelin sheath for the white matter neurons
Microglia Phygocytic cells in CNS. Protect from debris, waste, and pathogens.
Astrocytes CNS choroid plexuses. Aid capillaries in creating the blood-brain barrier.
Neurolemmocytes (Schwann Cells) responsible for myelinating neurons in the PNS.
Sensory (afferent neurons) Transmit nerve impulse to the CNS
General Senses not unique
Special Senses unique (sight, smell, taste, balance, hearing)
Association Neurons (interneurons) In CNS forming a bridge between the body's sensory and motor neurons.
Motor (efferent neurons) transmit nerve impulses away from CNS.
Chromatphilic Substance (Nissl Bodies) a neuron's rough ER and produce proteins called neurofibrils.
Fibers the processes whih projoct from a perikaryon's (cell body) surface.
Dendrites fibers that transmit electrical impulses toward the cells perikaryon
Axon fibers that transmit electrical impulses away from the perikaryon. The branches are called telodendria and contain the cell's synaptic vesicles.
Unipolar neurons possess only one fiber. most sensory neurons.
Bipolar Neurons possess two fibers; one dendrite and one axon.
Mulitpolar Neurons possess many fibers; forms most of the nervous system
Myelin Sheath extension of glial cells' neurolemma
Created by: briannamurr