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CHAPT 6 SKELETAL

SKELETAL SYSTEM

QuestionAnswer
The medical condition called ____________ is a degenerative disorder characterized by a decrease in bone density OSTEOPOROSIS
Inflammation of the joint is called ARTHRITIS
What is OSSIFICATION Bone Formation
What is OSTEON Fundamental unit of compact bone, cylinder of osteacytes surrounded by central canal
What is ARTICULATION? Where BONES MEET JOINTS
What is LIGAMENT? CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT HOLDS BONES TOGETHER
WHAT IS A TENDON? Connective TISSUE THAT HOLDS MUSCLE TO BONE
What is REDUCTION? Brining the ends of a fractured bone into alignment
What is a COMPOUND FRACTURE? Broken bones that protrudes through the skin
What is a COMMINUTED FRACTURE? Broken bone in which the bone is CRUSHED INTO FRAGMENTS or SPLINTERS
When a FRACTURE BREAKS THE SKIN it is called a? COMPOUND FRACTURE
What is the 1st STEP IN BONE REPAIR? Hematoma formation and Inflammation
According to the TEXTBOOK what DECREASES BONE MASS? CAFFEINE; COFFEE OR COLA = TOBACCO; CIGARETTES SMOKING
Before a bone can heal, it must be ____ to make sure the ends of the bone are touching REDUCED
What is the FUNCTION OF OSTEOBLASTS Build NEW BONES; secrects bone matrix
Where are OSTEOPROJENITOR CELLS found? PERIOSTEUM
What is the PRIMARY COMPONENT of the SKELETON? BONE
The PHALANGES and ULNA ARE EXAMPLES OF WHAT TYPE OF BONE? LONG SHAPED
The MANDIBLE and CERVICAL VERTEBRAE are examples of what type of bone? IRREGULAR SHAPED
The expanded ends of long bones are called? EPIPHYSES
Most fibrous joints are .... SLIGHTLY MOVABLE
What SUBSTANCE is housed in SPONGY BONE yet is ABSENT IN the MEDULLARY CAVITY RED BONE MARROW
WHAT TYPE OF BONY TISSUE MAKES UP THE ADULT DIAPHYSIS? COMPACT BONE
MATURE BONE CELLS ARE CLINCALLY CALLED: OSTEOCYTES
MATURE BONE CELLS ARE HOUSED IN TINY HOLES? LACUNAE
NODDING THE HEAD IN AN AGGRESSIVE GESTURE OF "YES" IS EMPLOYING: FLEXION/EXTENSION
What is PERIOSTEUM? Tough fibrous connective tissure that covers bones.
What is the ANCHOR POINT FOR LIGAMENTS? PERIOSTEUM
What is the EPIPHYSIS? Is the EXPANDED END OF THE LONG BONE
What are the 4 functions of the skeleton Frame Work, Produce blood cells, Protects Organs, the warehouse for mineral storage
Long bones are Longer than they are wide
Short bones are equal in width and legnth
Flat bones are Thin; Flat or curved
Irregular bones are Oddly shaped
What is the region that runs between the 2 epiphyses DIAPHYSIS
Osteons (Haversian Systme)`
What does OSTEOCLASTS DO> Tear down bone; move calcium and phosphate into the blood
After you ar born does the epiphysis on your LONG BONES contiune to grow? Yes
Bone repair is accomblished by the same process as bone growth Endochondrial Ossification
Stage 1 of Bone Repair is where the hematoma formation begins in inflammation
Stage 2 is SOFT (fibrocartilage) callus formation, cartilage fills in the space
What is CARTILAGE A FORM OF DENSET CONNECTIVE TISSURE
How does CARTIALGE ACT as a SHOCK ABSORBER It prevents the ends from grinding to gether
Joints are also known as articulation
Ligaments are very tough
Tendons are cord like structures that attach muscle to bone
Joints are classified by thier function and structure
Fibrous joints are held together by short connective tissue strands
Cartilaginous – held together by cartilage
Gliding joints – flat or slightly curved, platelike bones found in your wrists and ankles; slide back and forth
Hinge joints one bone is in the shape of a cylinder and the other a trough; found in your knees and elbows; open and close
Saddle joints – one bone shaped just like a saddle and another bone similar to a horse’s back, in the base of your thumb; rock up and down and side to side
Ellipsoidal joints (also called condyloid joints) – two axes of movement through the same bone; knuckles of your fingers are ellipsoidal joints
Pivot joints – rotate; circular portion of one bone that spins inside a ring-shaped portion of the other; neck and forearm
Ball-and-socket joint – all types of movement, including rotation; spherical articulation with a cup-shaped socket; hips and shoulders and can perform
Flexion – Bending a joint and decreasing the angle between involved bones
Extension – Straightening a joint Plantar flexion – Pointing toes down
Dorsiflexion – Bending the foot up toward the body
Abduction – Moving away from the body’s midline
Adduction – Moving toward the midline of the body
Inversion – Turning the foot inward toward other foot
Eversion – Turning foot outward away from opposing foot
Supination – Turning hand palm up
Pronation – Turning hand palm down
Protraction – Drawing a part forward
Retraction – Drawing backward
Circumduction – Circular arm movement of a pitcher
Rotation – Spinning on axis
Axial skeleton – Bones of the bony thorax, spinal column, hyoid bone, bones of the middle ear, and skull; they protect the body organs and total 80
Appendicular skeleton – Bones of your arms, legs, hips, and shoulders and total 126 bones
The sternum Manubrium – superior portion Body – central portion Xiphoid – inferior portion
True ribs – pairs 1 to 7; vertebrosternal – connect anteriorly to the sternum and posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
False ribs – pairs 8 to 10; vertebrocostal – connect to cartilage of the superior rib and to the thoracic vertebrae
Floating – pairs 11 and 12 no anterior attachment
Protects the spinal cord, the superhighway for information traveling to and from the central nervous system
Cartilage The chemical composition changes – more brittle and yellow due to calcification. Can lead to arthritis
Osteoporosis – weaker lighter bone more prone to breakage. More common in women than men.
Prevention – calcium and vitamin D, weight-bearing exercise, quit smoking, limit caffeine
Hairline fracture – a fine fracture that doesn’t completely break or displace the bone
Simple or closed fracture – break with minimal displacement and no tear in the skin
Greenstick fracture – incomplete break; often found in children
Spiral fracture – twisting motion to the bone
Comminuted fracture – bone fragments or splinters
Compound or open fracture – bone protrudes through the skin, with the potential of infection from exposure
The 206 bones of the skeleton can be classified according to their SHAPE
epiphysis, and the shaft is called the diaphysis
The hollow region within the diaphysis is called the medullary cavity and stores yellow marrow.
Created by: spoon6464