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Palmer Ch13_AB

Irredentism Irredentism (from Italian irredento, "unredeemed") is any position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity or prior historical possession, actual or alleged.
Nihilism A philosophical doctrine suggesting the negation of one or more putatively meaningful aspects of life. Nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism: life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value.
Risorgimento 19th-century movement for Italian unification that culminated in the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. An ideological and literary movement that helped to arouse the national consciousness of the Italian people, led to the freedom of Italy.
Austroslavism Austroslavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire. It was most influential among Czech liberals around the middle of the 19th century.
Extraterritoriality Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
Garibaldi "The Hero Of The Two Worlds." An Italian military and political figure. Garibaldi took part in the War of the Farrapos and the Uruguayan Civil War leading the Italian Legion, and commander in the conflicts of Risorgimento.
Bismarck He was a Junker from old Brandenburg east of the Elbe. He cultivated the gruff manner of an honest country squire, though he was in fact an accomplished man of the world. He advocated, and even felt, a kind of stout Protestant piety.
Zollverein The Zollverein, or German Customs Union, established in 1818, was a coalition of German states formed to manage customs and economic policies within their territories.
Meiji era also known as the Meiji era is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan.
Dual Monarch Dual monarchy occurs when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch, follow the same foreign policy, exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing.
Peace of Paris 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, Second French Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Signed on March 30, 1856. The treaty marked a severe setback to Russian influence in the region.
von Moltke A German Field Marshal. The chief of staff of the Prussian Army for thirty years, he is regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter 19th century, and the creator of a new, more modern method of directing armies in the field.
Nechaiev A Russian revolutionary associated with the Nihilist movement and known for his single-minded pursuit of revolution by any means necessary, including political violence.
Ausgleich Also called the Compromise of 1867, the compact, finally concluded on Feb. 8, 1867, that regulated the relations between Austria and Hungary and established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
zemstvo A form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. The idea of the zemstvo was elaborated by Nikolay Milyutin, and the first zemstvo laws were put into effect in 1864.
Third Republic The Third Republic was born in the defeat of 1871 to the hated Prussians. Shortly after taking power, the Republicans had to deal with the reds in the Paris Commune which took months to solve and only made the Prussians press for harsher peace terms.
Third Section A secret department set up in Imperial Russia, inherited from Tayny Prikaz, Privy Chancellery and Specialty Chancellery, effectively serving as the Imperial regime's secret police for much of its existence.
Catechism of a Revolution The Revolutionary Catechism or Catechism of a Revolutionary refers to two documents: A manifesto written by a Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin in 1865-1866 and a manifesto written by Russian revolutionary Sergey Nechayev between April and August 1869.
Cavour A leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification, the founder of the original Italian Liberal Party and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
Bakunin A well-known Russian revolutionary and theorist of collectivist anarchism. He has also often been called the father of anarchist theory in general.
autocracy An autocracy is a form of government in which one person is the supreme power within the state. Like "despot", "tyrant", "strongman" and "dictator", "autocrat" is a loaded word with a negative value judgment.
Slavophilism An intellectual movement, was developed in the 19th-century Russia; some were to the left of the political spectrum.
dominion Refers to one of a group of autonomous polities that were nominally under British sovereignty, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the latter part of the 19th century.
British North America Act They were enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom and the Parliament of Canada. In Canada, some of the Acts were amended or repealed by the Constitution Act, 1982.
Victor Emmanuel II King of Sardinia from 1849 and, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland.
Hohenzollern family The House of Hohenzollern is a noble family and royal dynasty of electors, kings and emperors of Prussia, Germany and Romania. It originated in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century.
Ems dispatch Sometimes called the Ems Telegram, caused France to declare the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870.
intelligentsia A social class of people engaged in complex, mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of culture, encompassing intellectuals and social groups close to them.
Realpolitik Refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on power and on practical and material factors and considerations, rather than ideological notions or moralistic or ethical premises. Shares philosophical approach with realism and pragmatism.
Lassalle A German-Jewish jurist and socialist political activist. Lassalle rejected the idea that the state was a class-based power structure with the function of preserving existing class relations and destined to "wither away" in a future classless society.
Herzen A Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism", and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism.
Created by: abii2595