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Palmer Ch13 (RC)

Irredentism Originating from the Italian pursuit of "an unredeemed Italy or Italia irredenta, this is a demand, on nationalist grounds for annexation of regions beyond one's own frontiers.
Garibaldi A Piedmontese republican known as a "hero of two worlds". He lead a revolution against the government of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies which achieved Italian Unification
Risorgimento An Italian dream for a liberal national state in which all Italy might be embodied and resurrect the Italian grandeur.
Bismarck Appointed chief minister in 1862 by the King of Prussia. Waged a constitutional struggle from 1862-1866 between Parliament, improved the army, and waged wars resulting in the creation of the North German Confederation for which he produced a constitution.
Zollverein A tariff union first nitrated in 1818 within the tiny states of Prussia and in later decades extended to include almost all of Germany
Dual Monarch A compromise between the Empire of Austria and Kingdom of Hungary in which both had its own constitution and parliament but shared the same Hapsburg ruler
Realpolitik A practice used by Bismarck in which he was practical and opportunistic and took advantage of situations in any direction.
Cavour A western liberal and political tactician who by tricking Austria into a declaration of war and later with the help of Garibaldi, united the north Italian Kingdom, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies into one Italy.
Herzen A Russian socialist who believed the true future of socialism lay in Russia because of the weakness of capitalism there and the collectivism already established in village communes.
Bakunin A radical anarchist who in the late 19th cen. Russia called for terrorism against tsarists officials an also liberals
Nechaiev Disciple of Bakunin whom in their People’s Justice and Catechism of a Revolution called for terrorism/assassination in the march for social progress and inspired many secret terrorist organizations.
Peace of Paris 1856 A settlement of the Crimean War where Alexander II sued for peace against all the great powers. Here they pledged to maintain the integrity of the Ottoman Empire.
Catechism of a Revolutionism Written by Nechaiev and Bakunin where they defined a true revolutionary as devoured by one purpose (revolution) and who has severed every link with the social order.
Ferdinand Lassalle Leader of Lassallean socialists in Germany who believed it possible to improve working-class conditions through the action of existing governments. These socialists were won over by Bismark and accepted the North German Confederation.
Victor Emmanuel II Ruler of Piedmont and later proclaimed king of the newly formed Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
Hohenzollern family Prussian royal faamily who had been invited to also become constitutional king of Spain after the revolution there. Bismarck's twisting of agreements between Prussia and France considering Spain provoked the Franco-Prussian war.
Nihilism Upheld by Russian intelligentsia in the 1860's which was the belief in nothing except science and took a cynical view of the reforming Tsar and his zemstvos
mir the ancient peasant village assembly which possessed redeemed peasant land and was responsible to government for payment and collection of necessary sums from its members.
zemstvo a form of local government instituted by Alexander II in Russia during his reforms
intelligentisa Mostly Russian university graduates who were ill at ease with the illiterate peasantry and engaged in critical conversation, all-embracing philosophies, and held an attitude of opposition
Ems dispatch A conversation between Benedetti, a french ambassador, and the Hohenzollern king about the Spanish throne. This conversation was telegraphed to Bismarck who condensed it to be misleading and then publicized it
Austroslavism A political program for the improvement of Slavs in Austria who were viewed as backwards and had no educated or wealthy class of their own.
Ausgleich The Austria-Hungarian compromise of 1867 which established a Dual Monarchy, the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
Extraterritoriality the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations
autocracy The leading institution in Russia in which the Tsar ran the country by ukase, police station, and the army.
Slavophilism Belief by Russian intelligentisa of Russian culture over western European culture. Slavophiles believed Russia to be entrusted with a special duty of its own, which imitation of Europe would only weaken.
Meihi Era A period on Japan from 1868-1912 where the lords Choshu and Satsuma felt the only way to save Japan was to learn the secrets of and adopt the military equipment of the West which lead to modernization
dominion An idea used by Canadians in which they formed a strong union in which all powers were to rest in the central government except those specifically assigned to provinces.
British North America Act A federal constitution drafted by Canadians and passed by the British Parliament in 1867 which constitutionally established the Dominion of Canada
Third Republic the proclamation of a Republic in Paris by insurrectionaries in the Franco-Prussian War where Bismarck permitted election by universal male suffrage of a National Assembly which would draft a constitution for the French state
Third Section Created by Tsar Nicholas I which served as the Imperial regime's secret police in Russia
Created by: rhiyanna