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A&P 2 - E4 - P1

A&P 2 - Exam 4 - Part 1 - Urinary & Nephron Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
The _________ are the principal organs of the urinary system. kidneys
Accessory organs of the urinary system include the _______, _______ and _________. ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
The urinary system regulates the contents of _________ to maintain the homeostasis of the internal fluid environment within normal limits. blood plasma
The shape of the kidneys are roughly oval with a ________ indentation. medial
The size of the kidneys are approximately ____ by ____ by _____. 11cm, 7cm, 3cm
The ______ kidney is often larger than the _______ kidney. left, right
Which kidney is lower? right
The kidneys are located in a _______ position. retroperitoneal
The kidneys lie on either side of the vertebral column between vertebrae ____ and ______. T12, L3
Renal _______ anchors the kidneys to the surrounding structures. fasciae
A heavy cushion of _____ surrounds each kidney. fat
_________ comprise much of the medullary tissue of the kidneys. renal pyramids
________ are areas of the kidneys where cortical tissue dips into the medulla between the pyramids. renal columns
________ are cuplike structures of the kidney at each renal papilla which collect urine. calyx
Calyces are cuplike structures of the kidney at each renal ________ which collect urine. papilla
Calyces join together to form the _________. renal pelvis
The renal pelvis narrows as it exits the kidney to become the ________. ureter
The _______ narrows as it exits the kidney to become the ureter. renal pelvis
Kidneys are highly __________. vascularized
The renal artery is a large branch of the ___________. abdominal aorta
The _________ is a large branch of the abdominal aorta. renal artery
The _________ brings blood into each kidney. renal artery
Between the pyramids of the medulla, the renal artery branches into _______ arteries which extend toward the cortex. interlobar
________ arteries arch over the bases of the pyramids. arcuate
_________ arteries penetrate the cortex. interlobular
Pattern of blood flow through kidneys from the interlobular artery to the interlobular vein is ________. interlobular artery > afferent ateriole > glomerulus > efferent arteriole > peritubular capillaries (including vasa recta) > venules > interlobular vein
The _______ is located where the afferent arteriole brushes past the distal tubule. juxtaglomerular apparatus
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located where the afferent arteriole brushes past the _________. distal tubule
The _________ is important to the maintenance of blood flow homeostasis by reflexively secreting renin when blood pressure in the afferent arteriole drops. juxtaglomerular apparatus
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is important to the maintenance of blood flow homeostasis by reflexively secreting ______ when blood pressure in the afferent arteriole drops. renin
The _______ are tubes running from each kidney to the urinary bladder. ureters
The ureters are composed of what 3 layers? mucous lining, muscular middle layer, and a fibrous outer layer
The ________ is a collapsible bag located behind the symphysis pubis. urinary bladder
The urinary bladder is a collapsible bag located behind the _________. symphysis pubis
The urinary bladder is mostly made up of _________ tissue. smooth muscle
The lining of the urinary bladder forms ridges called _______. rugue
The urinary bladder can ________ considerably. distend
The urinary bladder acts as a reservoir for _______ prior to its leaving the body. urine
The urinary bladder expels urine from the body through what tube? urethra
The mechanism for voiding is also known as _______. micturition urination
Urination normally requires the voluntary relaxation of the _________ muscle. external sphincter
During urination, regions of the ________ muscle contract reflexively. detrusor
Urine is forced out of the bladder and through the _______. urethra
The urethra extends from the ________ of the bladder to the exterior of the body. trigone
The urethra is a small, _______ lined tube. mucous membrane
In females, the urethra lies posterior to ________ and anterior to the _______. symphysis pubis, vagina
In females, the urethra is approximately ____ long. 3 cm
In males, the urethra passes through the _______ gland. prostate
In males, the urethra is joined by two _______ ducts. ejaculatory
In males, the urethra ends at the orifice known as the _________. urinary meatus
In males, the urethra is approximately ____ long. 20 cm
In males, the urethra is part of the _______ system as well as the _______ system. urinary, reproductive
________ are the microscopic functional units that make up the bulk of the kidney. nephrons
Nephrons are the microscopic __________ that make up the bulk of the kidney. functional units
A _________ is a glomerular capsule with an enclosed glomerulus. renal corpuscle
The _________ is the cup-shaped mouth of a nephron. Bowman's capsule
The Bowman's capsule is formed by ______ and ______ walls with a space between them. parietal, visceral
________ in the visceral layer of the Bowman's capsule are packed closely together to form _______ slits. pedicels, filtration
A slit diaphragm prevents _______ from enlarging under pressure. filtration slits
The ________ is a network of fine capillaries in the Bowman's capsule. glomerulus
Together, the glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule are known as a _________. renal corpuscle
Renal corpuscles are located in the ________ of the kidney. cortex
The glomerular-capsular membrane is formed by glomerular ________, the ________ and the ________. endothelium, basement membrane, visceral layer of the Bowman's capsule
The glomerular-capsular membrane's function is ________. filtration
The _________ is the first part of renal tubule nearest to the Bowman's capsule. proximal tubule
The proximal tubule is also known as the proximal ________ tubule. convoluted
The ________ is a renal tubule segment just beyond proximal tubule. loop of Henle
The loop of Henle consists of a ______ descending limb, a sharp turn, and a ______ ascending limb. thin, thick
The ________ consists of a thin descending limb, a sharp turn, and a thick ascending limb. loop of Henle
A _________ nephron is a nephron with a loop of Henle that dips into the medulla. juxtamedullary
A _________ nephron is a nephron with a loop of Henle that does not dip into the medulla but remains within the cortex. cortical
A _______ is a convoluted tubule beyond the loop of Henle. distal tubule
The distal tubule is also known as the distal ________ tubule. convoluted
The _________ is a straight tubule joined by the distal tubules of several nephrons. collecting duct
The collecting duct is a straight tubule joined by the ______ tubules of several nephrons. distal
Larger collecting ducts of one renal pyramid converge to form one tube that opens at a _______ into a _______. renal papilla, calyx
Larger ________ of one renal pyramid converge to form one tube that opens at a renal papilla into a calyx. collecting ducts
Created by: K1N1V