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A&P II: Digest & Met

Mod 5

all of the small molecules that cells have to use as needed nutrient pool
substances that accelerate chemical reactions, usually a protein enzymes
Enzymes ________ anabolic & catabolic reactions necessary for a healthy metabolism. facilitate
A controllable source of energy used for cellular functions. chemical energy
ATP used in anabolic reactions which build complex molecules is supplied via catabolic reactions in which ______ moles are broken down into simpler components & ATP is released. food
formula for the breakdown of ATP to provide cellular energy ATP -> ADP + P + energy
formula for the formation of ATP ADP + P + energy -> ATP
The _______ of anabolism & catabolism occurs via ATP. coupling
most important carbohydrate in cellular metabolism glucose
preferred energy source for cellular metabolism ATP
Cells obtain glucose by: 1) catabolism by glycolysis and 2) _________ Kreb's cycle
C6H12O6 a single mole of glucose
cells utilize glucose by transanimation, lipogenesis, lactation, glyco______ & gluconeogenesis genesis
Process in which glucose to glycogen which is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle. glycogenesis
When the liver is "full" of glycogen, excess glucose is converted to triglycerides & stored in adipose tissue
Process in which glycogen is broken down to form glucose. glycogenolysis
Process in which amino acids and glycerol combine to form glucose. gluconeogenesis
Three types of lipids are cholesterol, phopholipid and ____________. triglyceride
A triglyceride molecule is made up of 3 long chain fatty acids and a glycerol
A lipoprotein is a complex of 4 components: proteins, cholesterol, triglycerides & phospholipids
A lipid isn't water soluble; to make it transportable it's combined with a protein to make a lipoprotein
Triglycerides are _________ by many cells to form ATP. (gluconeogenesis) catabolized
A component of triglycerides, fatty acid phospholipids form cell __________. membranes
A component of triglycerides, fatty acids are used to _______ other moles, i.e. paracrines, clotting factors, inflammatory mediators, etc. synthesize
Cholesterol is used in the synthesis of steroid hormones & _______ ________. bile salts
Cholesterol is a component of ___________. cell membranes
Phospholipids are the _______ ______ of cell membranes, especially myelin sheaths. building blocks
The brain can only use glucose as an energy ________. source
Glucose: immediate energy, Triglycerides: _______ energy storage
Triglycerides catalyzed by lipases to the components glycerol & fatty acids used to form ATP. lipolysis
Stimulated by insulin, liver cells synthesize lipids from glucose on amino acids. lipogenesis
Glycogen is the by product of broken down carbohydrates while glycerol is the by product of broken down fats. ______ be converted to glucose from these states. Both
Fatty acid catabolism, which removes 2 carbon atoms to form acetyl CoA; occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. beta oxidation
The preferential use of glucose and triglycerides for cellular energy. protein sparing
As fats are broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is called ketoacidosis
During high rates of fatty acid catabolism, the intermediate compound _______ is formed. ketone
To remove an the amino group (NH2) from an amino acid which is then turned into ammonia. deamination
Liver cells produce ammonia (NH3) as a result of deamination which is turned into urea & excreted in the _______ system. urinary
Excess dietary protein is converted to _________ & stored in adipose tissue. triglycerides
The transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to pyruvic acid or to an acid in the Kreb's cycle. transanimation
In what cell organelle does protein synthesis occur? ribosomes
What molecules contain the "code" for protein synthesis? DNA & RNA
What is the process called in which the DNA & RNA code is read? translation
The key hormone in the absorptive state. insulin
The key hormone in the post-absorptive state. glucagon
Lipogenesis, uptake of glucose, & glycogenesis all happen in the _________ state. absorptive
Glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis occur during the ___________ state. post-absorptive
Glucagon is used to _______ the blood glucose. raise
Insulin is used to ________ the blood glucose. lower
_________ islets act as endergonic cells to produce insulin & glucagon. Pancreatic
______ cells in the pancreas produce insulin. beta
______ cells in the pancreas produce glucagon. alpha
Insulin accelerates facilitated ________ of glucose into cells. diffusion
epinephrine, _______, & growth hormone raise glucose levels in the blood cortisol
Body heat is produced as the ____-_______ of metabolic reactions by-product
The measurement of metabolic rate under basal conditions such as quiet resting & fasting. basal metabolic rate
Elevation of core temperature caused by the resetting of the hypothalamic thermostat. fever
Two skin responses to heat: sweat & vasodilation
Two physiological responses to cold: shiver and vasoconstriction
The thermoreceptors for body temperature regulation are located in the preoptic area in the ____________ & in the skin. hypothalamus
Created by: MKC



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