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Ch 13 All the Rest

emmetropia (EM) State of normal vision.
legally blind Describes a person with severely impaired vision. Usually defined as having visual acuity of 20/200 that can't be improved with corrective lenses or having a visual field of less than 20 degrees.
nyctalopia Difficulty seeing in dim light; also called night-blindness. Usually due to damaged rods.
ophthalmology Branch of medicine involving the diagnosis & treatment of conditions & diseases of the eye & surrounding structures. The physician is an ophthalmologist.
optician Specialist in grinding corrective lenses.
optometry Medical profession specializing in examining the eyes, testing visual acuity, & prescribing corrective lenses. A doctor of optometry is an optometrist.
papilledema Swelling of the optic disk. Often as a result of increased intraocular pressure. Also called choked disk.
photophobia A strong sensitivity to bright light.
presbyopia Visual loss due to old age, resulting in difficulty focusing for near vision (such as reading).
xerophthalmia Dry eyes.
achromatopsia Color blindness. Unable to perceive one or more colors; more common in males.
amblyopia Lazy eye. Loss of vision not caused by eye pathology. Usually occurs in those who see 2 images. To see only 1 image, the brain no longer recognizes the image sent to it by 1 of the eyes. May occur if strabismus isn't corrected. Not treatable w/lenses.
astigmatism Condition in which light rays are focused unevenly on the retina, causing a distorted image, due to an abnormal curvature of the cornea.
cataract Damage to the lens causing it to become opaque or cloudy, resulting in diminished vision. Treatment is usually surgical removal of the cataract or replacement of the lens.
corneal abrasion Scraping injury to the cornea. If it doesn't heal, it may develop into an ulcer.
glaucoma Increase in intraocular pressure.If untreated w/medication or surgery, it may result in optic nerve atrophy & blindness.Persons 60+, of African ancestry, who've had a serious eye injury, or a family history of diabetes or glaucoma have increased risk.
hyperopia Farsightedness. Condition where a person can see things in the distance but has trouble with reading material at close range. Can be corrected with converging or biconvex lenses.
macular degeneration Deterioration of the macular area of the retina of the eye. May be treated w/laser surgery to destroy the blood vessels beneath the macula.
monochromatism Unable to perceive one color.
myopia Nearsightedness. Condition where a person can see things close up but distance vision is blurred. This condition is corrected with diverging or biconcave lenses.
retinal detachment Occurs when the retina becomes separated from the choroid layer. This seriously damages blood vessels & nerves, resulting in blindness. May be treated w/surgical or medical procedures to stabilize the retina & prevent separation.
retinitis pigmentosa Progressive disease of the eye resulting in the retina becoming hard (sclerosed), pigmented (colored), and atrophying (wasting away). There is no known cure.
retinoblastoma Malignant eye tumor occurring in children, usually under the age of 3. Requires enucleation.
pterygium Hypertrophied conjunctival tissue in the inner corner of the eye.
trachoma Chronic infectious disease of the cunjunctiva & cornea caused by bacteria. Occurs more commonly in those living in hot, dry climates. Untreated, it may lead to blindness when the scarring invades the cornea. Can be treated w/antibiotics.
hordeolum Refers to a stye (or sty), a small, purulent inflammatory infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid; treated w/hot compresses and/or surgical incision.
esotropia Inward turning of the eye; also called cross-eyed. An example of a form of strabismus, or muscle weakening of the eye.
exotropia Outward turning of the eye, also called wall-eyed. Also an example of strabismus.
strabismus Eye muscle weakness commonly seen in children resulting in the eyes looking in different directions at the same time. May be corrected with glasses, eye exercises, and/or surgery.
hemianopia Loss of vision in half of the visual field. A stroke patient may suffer from this disorder.
nystagmus Jerky-appearing involuntary eye movements, usually left and right. Often an indication of brain injury.
color vision tests Use of polychromatic (multicolored) charts to determine the ability of the patient to recognize color.
fluorescein angiography Process of injecting a dye (fluorescein) to observe the movement of blood & detect lesions in teh macular area of the retina. Used to determine if there is a detachment of the retina.
fluorescein staining Applying dye eye drops that are a bright green fluorescent color. Used to look for corneal abrasions or ulcers.
keratometry Measurement of the curvature of the cornea using an instrument called a keratometer.
ophthalmoscopy Examination of the interior of the eyes using an instrument called an ophthalmoscope. The physician dilates the pupil in order to see the cornea, lens, & retina. Used to identify abnormalities in the blood vessels of the eye & some systemic diseases.
refractive error test Vision test for a defect in the ability of the eye to accurately focus the image that is hitting it. Refractive errors result in myopia and hyperopia.
slit lamp microscopy Examining the posterior surface of the cornea.
Snellen chart Chart used for testing distance vision named for Dutch ophthalmologist Hermann Snellen.It contains letters or varying sizes & is administered from a distance of 20 ft.A person who can read @ 20 ft what the average person can read @ 20 ft has 20/20 vision.
tonometry Measurement of the intraocular pressure of the eye using a tonometer to check for glaucoma. The physician places a tonometer lightly on the eyeball & a pressure measurement is taken. Generally part of a normal eye exam for adults.
visual acuity (VA) test Measurement of the sharpness of a patient's vision. Usually, a Snellen chart is used for this test in which the patient identifies letters from a distance of 20 ft.
cryoextraction Procedure in which cataract is lifted from the lens with an extremely cold probe.
cryoretinopexy surgical fixation of the retina by using extreme cold.
enucleation surgical removal of the eyeball.
keratoplasty surgical repair of the cornea is the simple translation of this term that is used to mean corneal transplant.
laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) correction of myopia using laser surgery to remove corneal tissue.
laser photocoagulation use of a laser beam to destroy very small precise areas of the retina. May be used to treat retinal detachment or macular degeneration.
phacoemulsification use of high-frequency sound waves to emulsify (liquefy) a lens with a cataract, which is then aspirated (removed by suction) with a needle.
photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) use of a laser to reshape the cornea and correct errors of refraction.
radial keratotomy (RK) spokelike incisions around the cornea that result in it becoming flatter. A surgical treatment for myopia.
scleral buckling Placing a band of silicone around the outside of the sclera that stabilizes a detaching retina.
strabotomy incision into the eye muscles in order to correct strabismus.
anesthetic ophthalmic solution eye drops for pain relief associated with eye infections, corneal abrasions, or surgery.
antibiotic ophthalmic solution eye drops for the treatment of bacterial eye infections.
antiglaucoma medications Drugs that reduce intraocular pressure by lowering the amount of aqueous humor in the eyeball. May achieve this by either reducing the production of aqueous humor or increasing its outflow.
artificial tears medications, may of them over the counter, to treat dry eyes.
miotic any substance that causes the pupil to constrict. These medications may also be use to treat glaucoma.
mydriatic Any substance that causes the pupil to dilate by paralyzing the iris and/or ciliary body muscles. Particularly useful during eye exams and eye surgery.
ophthalmic decongestants Over-the-counter medications that constrict the arterioles of the eye, reduce redness and itching of the conjunctiva.
ARMD age-related macular degeneration
Astigm astigmatism
c.gl. correction with glasses
D diopter (lens strength)
DVA distance visual acuity
ECCE extracapsular cataract extraction
EENT eye, ear, nose, and throat
EM emmetropia
EOM extraocular movement
ICCE intracapsular cataract extraction
IOP intraocular pressure
LASIK laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis
OD right eye
Ophth. ophthalmology
OS left eye
OU each eye/both eyes
PERRLA pupils equal, round, react to light and accommodation
PRK photorefractive keratectomy
REM rapid eye movement
s.gl. without correction or glasses
SMD senile macular degeneration
ST esotropia
VA visual acuity
VF visual field
XT exotropia
American Sign Language (ASL) nonverbal method of communicating in which the hands and fingers are used to indicate words and concepts. Used by both persons who are deaf and persons with speech impairments.
Binaural referring to both ears
Decibel(dB) measures the intensity or loudness of a sound. Zero decibels is the quietest sound measured and 120 dB is the loudest commonly measured.
Hertz(Hz) measurement of the frequency or pitch of sound. The lowest pitch on an audiogram is 250Mz. The measurement can go as high as 8000Hz, which is the highest pitch measured.
Monaural referring to one ear
Otorhinolaryngology branch of medicine involving the diagnosis and treatment of conditions and the diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Also referred to as an ENT. Physician is an otorhinolaryngologist
Presbycusis normal loss of hearing that can accompany the aging process
Residual hearing amount of hearing that is still present after damage has occurred to the auditory mechanism
Tinnitus ringing in the ears
Vertigo dizziness
Anacusis total absence of hearing; inability to perceive sound. Also called deafness
Deafness inability to hear or having some degree of hearing impairment
Ceruminoma excessive accumulation of ear wax resulting in a hard wax plug. Sound becomes muffled
Otitis externa (OE) external ear infection. Mostly commonly caused by a fungus. Also called otomycosis and commonly referred to as swimmer’s ear
Otitis media (OM) seen frequently in kids; commonly referred to as a middle ear infection. Often preceded by an upper respiratory infection during which pathogens move from the pharynx to the middle ear via the Eustachian tube. Fluid accumulates in the middle ear cavity.
Otosclerosis Loss of mobility of the stapes bone, leading to progressive hearing loss
Acoustic neuroma benign tumor of the eighth cranial nerve sheath. The pressure causes symptoms such as tinnitus, headache, dizziness, and progressive hearing loss
Labyrinthitis may affect both the hearing and equilibrium portions of the inner ear. Also, referred to as an inner ear infection
Meniere’s disease abnormal condition within the labyrinth of the inner ear that can lead to a progressive loss of hearing. Symptoms are dizziness or vertigo, hearing loss, & tinnitus. Named for French physician Prosper Meniere.
Audiometry test of hearing ability by determining the lowest & highest intensity & frequencies that a person can distinguish.The patient may sit in a soundproof booth & receive sounds through earphones as a technician decreases the sound or lowers the tone.
Rinne and Weber tuning-fork test these tests assess both nerves & bone conduction of sound. The physician holds a tuning fork against or near the bones on the side of the head. Friedrich Rinne was a German otologist. Weber was a German physiologist.
Otoscopy examination of the ear canal, eardrum, and outer ear using an otoscope
Tympanometry measurement of the movement of the tympanic membrane. Can indicate the presence of pressure in the middle ear
Falling test test for balance & equilibrium.Patient is observed balancing on 1 foot, then w/1 foot in front of the other, & then walking forward w/eyes open.The same test is done w/patient's eyes closed.Swaying/falling w/eyes closed can mean an ear/equilibrium issue.
Hearing aid apparatus or mechanical device used by persons with impaired hearing to amplify sound. Also called amplification device.
Cochlear implant mechanical device surgically placed under the skin behind the outer ear (pinna) that converts sound signals into magnetic impulses to stimulate the auditory nerve. Can be beneficial for those with profound sensorineural hearing loss.
Myringotomy surgical puncture of the eardrum w/removal of pus & fluid from the middle ear to eliminate a persistent ear infection & excessive pressure on the tympanic membrane. A pressure equalizing tube is placed in the tympanic membrane to allow for drainage.
Pressure equalizing tubes small tube surgically placed in a child’s eardrum to assist in drainage of trapped fluid and to equalize pressure between the middle ear cavity and the atmosphere.
Stapedectomy removal of the stapes bone to treat otosclerosis (hardening of the bone). A prosthesis or artificial stapes may be implanted.
Antibiotic otic solution eardrops to treat otitis externa
Antiemetics medications that are effective in treating the nausea associated with vertigo
Anti-inflammatory otic solution reduces inflammation, itching, and edema associated with otitis externa
Wax emulsifiers substances used to soften ear wax to prevent build up within the external ear canal
AD right ear
AS left ear
ASL American sign language
AU both ears
BC bone conduction
dB decibel
EENT eyes, ears, nose, throat
ENT ear, nose, throat
HEENT head, eyes, ears, nose, throat
Hz hertz
OM otitis media
Oto otology
PE tube pressure equalizing tube
PORP partial ossicular replacement prosthesis
SOM serous otitis media
TORP total ossicular replacement prosthesis
Created by: AltheaMathews