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A&P II: Digestive

CH. 24-25

organs involved in the breakdown of food digestive system
the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the rectum & anus proctology
the structure, function, diagnosis, & treatment of diseases of the stomach & intestines gastroenterology
a continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus GI tract
AKA GI tract alimentary canal
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, & pancreas accessory digestive glands
the capability of the GI tract to mix & move material along its length is motility
the large carbohydrate, lipid, protein, & nucleic acid molecules in food are split into smaller molecules by hydrolysis in chemical digestion
teeth cut & grind the food, smooth muscles of the stomach & small intestine churn the food in mechanical digestion
entrance of ingested & secreted fluids, ions, & the products of digestion into the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the GI tract absorption
the discharge of feces from the rectum defecation
inner lining of the GI tract mucosa membrane
nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium lining & protecting the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, & anal canal epithelium
all the chemical reactions that occur in the body metabolism
chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones are collectively known as catabolism
chemical reactions that combine simple molecules & monomers to form the body's complex structural & functional components anabolism
molecule that couples catabolic and anabolic reactions ATP
catabolic reactions that produces more energy than it consumes exergonic
anabolic reactions that consume more energy than they produce endergonic
removal of electrons from an atom or molecule, the result is a decrease in potential energy of that atom or molecule oxidation
the addition of electrons to a molecule resulting in an increase in the potential energy of the molecule reduction
the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid is a reduction reaction
oxidation and reduction reactions are always paired, aka redox reactions
the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, that causes an increase in potential energy phosphorylation
Created by: MKC



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