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A&P Study Skills

Ch. 9,10,&11

QuestionAnswer
An articulation is a point of contact between bones. TRUE
Sutures are found only in the skull. TRUE
A symphysis is a joint in which bones are connected by fibrous bands. FALSE
Syndesmotic joints have hyaline cartilage at articular surfaces. FALSE
Synchondrotic joints between the ribs and sternum allow for expansion of the chest cavity during breathing. TRUE
All synovial joints have an enclosed cavity with a lubricating fluid. TRUE
Hinge joints permit adduction and abduction. FALSE
The joint between the metatarsals and the phalanges is a hinge-type joint. TRUE
A pivot joint is a form of a uniaxial joint. TRUE
Condyloid (ellipsoidal) joints are biaxial joints in which one bone fits into a depression on another bone. TRUE
The fibrocartilage pads between the articulating ends of bones may be called minisci. TRUE
A gliding joint is a form of uniaxial joint. FALSE
Circumduction consists of pivoting a bone on its own axis. TRUE
Eversion turns the sole of the foot outward. TRUE
When a man sticks out his jaw, he has protracted it. TRUE
The acetbulum is a deep, cuplike socket, whereas the glenoid cavity is shallow and saucer-shaped. TRUE
The hip joint permits flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, and circumduction. TRUE
The joints between carpal bones are synarthrotic. FALSE
Fontanels become sutures. TRUE
Most symphyses are located in the midline of the body. TRUE
The vertabral column contains both cartilaginous and synovial joints. TRUE
There are more synovial joints in the body than any other type of joint. TRUE
The gomphoses joint is the most complex joint in the body. FALSE
The elbow and the dens of the axis are both part of a uniaxial joint. TRUE
The depth of the acetabulum gives stability to the hip joint. TRUE
Plantar flexion of the foot can be described as extension of the leg. TRUE
Rotation and circumduction are interchangeable terms. FALSE
Ligament are associated only with synovial joints. FALSE
Hyaline cartilage is associated only with synovial joints. FALSE
The only gomphoses joints in the body are found above the neck. TRUE
A spheroid joint is another name for a ball-and-socket joint. TRUE
Which of the following is not an example of a fibrous joint. a) Symphyses b)Sutures c) Syndesmoses d) Gomphoses SYMPHYSES
What are the unique joints that occur between the root of the tooth and the alveolar process of the mandible or maxilla? GOMPHOSES
What are the most movable joints in the body? SYNOVIAL JOINTS
In terms of structure, which type of articulation has a joint capsule? SYNOVIAL
In terms of function, which is considered an immovable joint? SYNARTHROSIS
A condyloid joint is an example of a(n): BIAXIAL JOINT
Which joint allows for the widest range of movement? BALL AND SOCKET
The pads of fibrocartilage located between the articulating ends of bones in some diarthroses are called: MENISCI
Menisci are: FIBROCARTILAGE PADS
The knee joint is an example of a: HINGE JOINT
An example of pivot joint is the: HEAD OF THE RADIUS ARTICULATING WITH THE ULNA
The distal end of the radius articulating with the carpal bones is an example of a: SADDLE JOINT
Which of the following is an example of a biaxial joint? a) pivot joint b) hinge joint c) ball and socket joint d) condyloid joint CONDYLOID JOINT
Which joint allows for the following movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction? BALL AND SOCKET
Moving a body part away from the medial plane of the body is called: ABDUCTION
Kicking a football is accomplished by: EXTENSION
Moving a part of the body forward is PROTRACTION
The type of movement that increases the angle between body parts is: EXTENSION
Stretching the foot down and back and pointing the toe is called PLANTAR FLEXION
The type of movement that occurs when the head is dropped to the shoulder, then to the chest, to the other shoulder, and toward the back is CIRCUMDUCTION
Tilting the foot upward, decreasing the angle between the top of the foot and the front leg, is called DORSIFLEXION
Deterioration of the nucleus pulpous results in A "SLIPPED DISK"
Sutures can be found in the SKULL ONLY
The occipital bone fitting into the atlas bone of the vertebrae is an example of a CONDYLOID JOINT
The opposite of dorsiflexion is PLANTAR FLEXION
The opposite of eversion is: a)protraction b)depression c)retraction d)none of the above NONE OF THE ABOVE
Which type of joint joins the two pubis bones together? SYNOVIAL
Saddle joints in the body can be found between the THUMB AND METACARPAL AND THE TRAPEZIUM IN THE WRIST
Which suture of a synovial joint is defined as a strong cord of dense, white fibrous connective tissue? LIGAMENT
The olecranon bursa is associated with which joint? ELBOW JOINT
There are more than 600 muscles in the body. TRUE
When a muscle contracts, the bone moved is the bone of insertion. TRUE
The insertion is that point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts. FALSE
Tendons are continuous with the layer of connective tissue called the epimysium. TRUE
Muscles often act singly as a prime mover FALSE
In a lever system, the fixed pivot around which the rod moves is called the fulcrum. TRUE
The gluteus muscles are examples of muscles that are named by location. TRUE
Muscles usually originate distal to the point of insertion. FALSE
The muscles of facial expression are unique in that at least one of their points of attachment is to the deep layers of skin over the face or neck. TRUE
Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles elevates the ribs. TRUE
The soleus muscle is responsible for plantar flexion. TRUE
Poor posture puts abnormal strain on bones and may eventually produce deformities. TRUE
With aging, connective tissue replaces some muscle fibers, causing decreased muscle strength. TRUE
The respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, and endocrine systems all contribute to the ability of muscles to maintain posture. TRUE
Just as individual bones are the organs of the skeletal system, individual muscles are the organs of the muscular system. TRUE
Muscle cells and muscle fibers are interchangeable terms. TRUE
Tendons and aponeuroses are both fibrous tissue extending from a muscle. TRUE
Fascia is a general term for the fibrous connective tissue found under the skin and around muscle. TRUE
Muscle can have only one origin attachment and one insertion attachment FALSE
Agonists and prime mover are interchangeable terms. TRUE
Antagonist muscles oppose the movement of the agonist muscle. TRUE
First- and second-class levers are not as common in the body as third-class levers. TRUE
Tendons anchor muscles to bone by attaching to the periosteum of the bone. TRUE
If a muscle causes the knee to bend, the insertion point is above the knee and origin point is below the knee. FALSE
Circular muscles are sometimes called sphincter muscles. TRUE
The epimysium is deep to the perimysium. FALSE
Skeletal muscles constitute approximately____ of our body weight. 50%
The connective tissue sheath that envelopes bundles of muscle fibers is the PERIMYSIUM
The covering of individual muscle fibers is the ENDOMYSIUM
Groups of skeletal muscle fibers are bound together by a connective tissue envelope called the PERIMYSIUM
An aponeurosis could be described as a FLAT SHEET OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE CONNECTING MUSCLE TO OTHER STRUCTURES
Muscles that contract at the same time as the prime mover are called SYNERGISTS AND FIXATORS
Muscles may be named according to FUNCTION, DIRECTION OF FIBERS, AND POINTS OF ATTACHMENT
Which of the following muscles function(s) to protect the abdominal viscera? EXTERNAL OBLIQUE, INTERNAL OBLIQUE, TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINUS
Which muscle(s) form(s) most of the pelvic floor? LEVATOR ANI AND COCCYGEUS
The muscle that raises or lowes the shoulders or shrugs them is the TRAPEZIUS
The muscle that extends and adducts the upper arm is the LATISSIMUS DORSI
The posterior arm muscle that extends the forarm is the TICEPS BRACHII
Muscles that move the upper arm originate on the CLAVICLE AND SCAPULA
In pushing (pressing) a weight from shoulder height to overhead, which of the following muscles is least utilized? BICEPS BRACHII
The action of the brachialis muscle is to FLEX THE FOREARM
Which of the following is not a muscle of the quadriceps femoris group? a)rectus femoris b)Biceps femoris c)vastus medialis d)vastus intermedius BICEPS FEMORIS
When an athlete injures a muscle of the hamstring group, the injury is on the POSTERIOR THIGH
Muscles located on the lower leg move the FOOT
Which of the following body systems assists the muscles in maintaining posture? a)digestive system b)endocrine system c)excretory system d)all of the above ALL OF THE ABOVE
A muscle is attached to the femur and the tibia. When the muscle contracts, the knee bends. That would mean that the TIBIA ATTACHMENT IS THE INSERTION
The origin of a muscle is on the femur, and the insertion is on the tibia. When it contracts, it bends the knee. The knee is acting as a fulcrum. TRUE OR FALSE TRUE
Which of the following is not a posterior muscle that acts on the shoulder girdle? a)trapezius b)pectoralis muscle c)levator scapulae d)rhomboideus PECTORALIS MINOR
There are more than ___ skeleton muscles in the body. 600
Another name for a skeletal muscle cell is a(n) MUSCLE FIBER
The most common type of lever in the body is a THIRD-CLASS LEVER
Moving from superficial to deep, the connective tissue components would be EPIMYSIUM, PERIMYSIUM, ENDOMYSIUM
Another name for muscle cells is muscle fibers TRUE
Muscle fibers of skeletal muscle contain several nuclei. TRUE
The protein molecule that has heads jutting out for cross-bridging is myosin. TRUE
A neuromuscular junction is a type of connection called a synapse. TRUE
Muscle fibers use creatine phophate to restore their ATP population. TRUE
ATP is made up of adenine, ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. TRUE
Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the red blood cell, and myoglobin stores oxygen in the muscle fiber. TRUE
Anaerobic respiration is the first choice of the muscle cell for the production of ATP. FALSE
T-tubules are perpendicular to muscle fibers. TRUE
When sarcomeres shorten, myofibrils also shorten. TRUE
For continued, efficient nutrient catabolism by muscle fibers, both glucose and oxygen are required. TRUE
Muscles contract more forcefully after they have contracted few times. TRUE
The degree of a muscle's strength is influenced by many factors, including its metabolic condition and number of motor units recruited. TRUE
The type of contraction exhibited by normal skeletal muscles most of the time is called tetanus. TRUE
The study of muscle activity is called myography. TRUE
The graded strength principle states that skeletal muscles contract with varying degrees of strength at different times TRUE
As resistance increases, the number of motor units needed to overcome that resistance has to increase. TRUE
Convulsions are abnormal, uncoordinated tetanic contractions of varying groups of muscles. TRUE
A hernia is a condition in which an abdominal protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal muscles. TRUE
Cramps are painful, involuntary muscle spasms. TRUE
Skeletal muscle has a great ability to stretch. FALSE
Muscle cells produce heat by the process of catabolism. TRUE
The cell membrane of a muscle fiber is called the sarcolemma. TRUE
Muscles with less tone than normal are described as flaccid. TRUE
The sarcoplasmic reticulum continually pumps calcium ions out of the sarcoplasm and stores them in sacs. TRUE
Which of the following is not one of the major functions of muscles? a)movement b)protection c)heat production d)posture PROTECTION
The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber is called the SARCOLEMMA
Bundles of fine fibers that extend lengthwise along muscle fibers are called MYOFIBRILS
The smallest contractile unit of muscle is a MYOFILAMENT
Which of the following is also known as striated muscle? a)smooth muscle b)skeletal muscle c)involuntary muscle d)visceral muscle SKELETAL MUSCLE
The ability of muscle cells to respond to nerve stimulus is called IRRATABILITY
The chief function of the T-tubules is to ALLOW FOR ELECTRICAL SIGNALS TO MOVE DEEPER INTO THE CELL
The neurotransmitter(s) secreted at the motor end plates of skeletal muscles is/are ACETYLCHOLINE
The first event to occur in muscle relaxation is THE SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM BEGINS ACTIVELY PUMPING CALCIUM BACK INTO ITS SACS
The purpose of creatine phosphate in muscle contraction is to REPLENISH ENERGY SUPPLY
Aerobic respiration PRODUCES THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF ENERGY AVAILABLE FROM EACH GLUCOSE MOLECULE.
A motor unit is most correctly described as a MUSCLE FIBER AND A MOTOR NEURON
White fibers are also called FAST FIBERS
Most body movements are A COMBINATION OF ISOTONIC AND ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONS
Endurance training is also known as AEROBIC TRAINING
Attempting to pick up an object too heavy to lift would result in which type of muscle contraction? ISOMETRIC
The graded strength principle states that SKELETAL MUSCLES CONTRACT WITH VARYING DEGREES OF STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT TIMES
Painful muscle contractions or involuntary twitches are called CRAMPS
The strength of a muscle contraction is influenced by the AMOUNT OF LOAD, INITIAL LENGTH OF MUSCLE FIBERS, AND RECRUITMENT OF MOTOR UNITS
Sarcolemma is A SEGMENT OF THE MYFIBRIL BETWEEN TWO SUCCESSIVE Z-LINES
Cross-bridges are also called MYOSIN HEADS
Treppe is also called STAIRCASE PHENOMENON
A decrease in muscle size is termed ATROPHY
The characteristic of the muscle cell that directly causes movement is CONTRACTILITY
A sarcomere is a segment of myofibril between two successive Z-LINES
The myofilament that can be described as a globular protein strung together like beads strands is ACTIN
The myofilment that can be described as bundled golf clubs with their heads sticking out from the bundle is MYOSIN
After it is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the calcium combines with which protein? TROPONIN
Glucose can be stored in the muscle as GLYCOGEN
Which of the following is not a factor in why warm muscle contracts more forcefully than a cool muscle? a)ATP releases energy faster b)Calcium diffuses through the sarcoplasm more quickly c)Calcium tends to accumulate in the sarcoplasm d)All of the above ATP RELEASES ENERGY FASTER
Which of the following terms describes an isometric contraction? a)eccentric contraction b)static tension c)concentric contraction d)both a and c STATIC TENSION
The motor end plate makes up part of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
Which part of the sarcomere stays almost the same size during contraction? A-BAND
Muscles usually contract to about 80% OF THEIR LENGTH
Muscle contractions will continue as long as THE CALCIUM IONS ARE ATTACHED TO THE TROPONIN
Muscle inflammation from any cause is called a MYOSITIS
Created by: Tamara Vines