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endocrine system galen

when a cell communicates with itself autocrine communication
when a cell comunicates only with the cells closest to it paracrine communication
when a cell communicates by releasing chemicals into the blood or lymph endocrine communication
factors in blood or lymph that stimulate a gland humoral stimuli
when a neuron stimulates an endocrine gland neural stimuli
when a hormone stimulates the release of another hormone hormonal stimuli
derived from amino acids, hydrophylic(disolves into blood or lymph), unable to pass through cell membrane, activates cell receptor like a lock and key amino acid based hormones
hydrophophobic(can't disolve in blood or lymph), must bind to an amphipathic molecule(a chaparone)can dissolve intot eh cell membrane, binds to intercellular receptor to initiate response steroid based hormones
specific hormones can only bind to specific receptors hormone specificity
once a hormone binds to a receptor it does not stay attached, but bounces on and off dynamic equilibrium
the bonding strength of a hormone affinity the higher the affinity, the more apt the hormone will bind tot eh receptor
acts as the link between the nervous system and endocrine system hypothalamus
thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) leutinizing hormone(LH) adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) frowth hormone(GH) prolactin all are secreted by anterior pituitary
Function: stimulates thyroid Target Organ: thyroid release stimulated by: thyroid releasing hormone(TRH) from the hypothalamus TSH thyroid stimulating hormone
function: stimulates sex cell production(eggs or sperm) target organ: gonads release stimulated by: gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH) from the hypothalamus FSH follicle stimulating hormone
function: stimulates release of sex steroids target organ:gonads release stimulated by: gonadotropin hormone(GnRH) from the hypothalamus LH leutinizing hormone
function: stimulates release of steroids from the adrenal cortex target organ: adrenal cortex release is stimulated by: corticotropin releasing hormone(CRH) from the hypothalamus adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
function: stimulates mitosis and cell division target organs: bones, muscle, and other structures associated with growth release is stimulated by: growth hormone releasing hormone(GHRH) from the hypothalamus growth hormone(GH)
function: stimulates milk production target organ: mammary glands release is stimulated by: decreased prolactin inhibiting hormone(PIH) from the hypothalamus prolactin
the posterior pituitary releases two hormones vasopressin, oxytocin
function: regulation of water concentration target organ: kidneys release is stimulated by: neurons from the hypothalamus vasopressin
function: stimulating milk ejection and uterus contraction target organ: mammary glands and uterus release is stimulated by: neurons from the ypothalamus oxytocin
thyroid releases two important hormones calcitonin and thyroxine(T3and T4)
function:inhibits calcium entry into the blood from the intestine and other sources. The overall result is reduction of blood calcium levels Target organ: intestine, kidney, bone release is stimulated by: high blood calcium levels calcitonin
function: regulates metobolic rate target organ: all cells of the body release is stimulated by: TSH from the anterior pituitary thyroxine(T3andT4)
releases parathyroid hormone parathyroid gland
function: promotes calcium entry into the blood target organ:intestine, kidney, bone release is stimulated by: low blood calcium levels parathyroid hormone(PTH)
two separate regions of the adrenal gland adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
function: promote the fight or flight response during periods of stress target organ: all tissues involved in fight or flight response release initiated by: sympathetic nervous system epinephrine and norepinephrine
aldosterone and cortisol are released by adrenal cortex
function: regulates ion and water balance target organ: kidneys release is initiated by: ACTH from the anterior pituitary aldosterone
function: increases blood sugar levels target organ: liver, immune system release initiated by: ACTH from the anterior pituitary cortisol
made and released by the pancreas function: allows entry of glucose into cells target organ: liver, muscle, fat release is initiated by: high blood glucose levels insulin
made and released by the pancreas function: promotes the creation and release of glucose from teh cells target organ: liver release is initiated by: low blood glucose levels glucagon
produced by the testes function: aids in the development of male sexual characteristics target organ: muscle, bone brain, and many other regions release is stimulated by: LH from the anterior pituitary testosterone
produced by the ovaries function: aids in the development of female sexual characterisics target organ: muscle, bone, brain, and many other regions release is initiated by: LH from the anterior pituitary estrogen
produced by the pineal gland function: initiates sleep cycle target organ: brain release is initiated by: darkness melatonin
Created by: amandasoman



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