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Chapter 17 - Microorganisms and Asepsis

antibotic a substance ingested, injected, or applied to a living being that has the power to inhibit the growth of or to destroy bacteria
antiseptic a chemical cleaning agent used on the skin to remove or to inhibit the growth of bacteria
asepsis the absence of or the control of microorganisms
bacteria (singular bacterium) one-celled microorganisms; may be found singularly or in chains
bacteriocide an agent or a process that kills bacteria
bacteriostatis the process of inhibiting or controlling bacterial growth
bloodborne pathogen any type of disease-causing organism that lives in and is transmitted through blood
chain of infection elements necessary for disease to spread; reservoir, host, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
disinfectant a bacteriostatic chemical agent used to clean and decrease the number of pathogens on inanimate objects (such as surgical instruments, countertops); does not sterilize
fomite contaminated food or drink and contaminated objects such as soiled hands; provide avenue for individual transmission of microbes
health care-acquired infection (HAI) infection a patient acquires when in a health care facility, typically a hospital setting; also known as nosocomial infection
bacteriology the study of bacteria
medical asepsis (clean technique) techniques and procedures that reduce the number of microorganisms in an environment and decrease opportunities for further spread
microorganisms microbes or germs; living organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye
mycology the study of fungi
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) a federal agency that develops and monitors guidelines and mandates that address health and safety in the workplace
parasite an organism that lives at the expense of another organism
parasitology study of worms, protozoa, and other parasites
pathogens microorganisms that cause disease
portals of entry routes in which microorganisms enter the body
spores encapsulated bacteria in an inactive or resting state
sterilization process of destroying all living organisms
surgical asepsis (sterile technique) techniques and procedures intended to eliminate all microorganisms in an environment
virology study of virus
Types of pathogens defined by principal shape Spherical, Rod, Spiral and Spores
Spherical cocci; singular coccus; examples: Streptococci, Staphylococci, Pneumococci
Rod bacilli; singular bacillus; examples: Bacillus anthracis (cause of anthrax), Myobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus tetanus
Spiral spirilla or spirochete; singular spirillum; corkscrew-shaped, example: Helicobacter pylori
Spores encapsulated (shell or capsule) bacteria in inactive or resting state; in the medical office spores are killed only by autoclaving
Types Defined by air need Aerobic and Anareobic
Aerobic bacteria that require oxygen for survival
Anaerobic bacteria that live without oxygen
Created by: dfedor08
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