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Chapter 5 - Terms

The Transformation of Eastern Europe (1648 - 1740)

Knights of the Empire little lords of manor that never got incorporated into the modern system; didn't acknowledge any overlordship besides the Holy Roman Emperor
neofeudalism characteristics of old feudal, medival concepts still alive; neo = new
Germanic liberties aka states rights; freedom of member states from control by emperor/europe; kept HRE weak (so backed by France)
perpetual diet Holy Roman emperor has diet (like congress or estates general so representative body); have for times of war and 1663 is the last time a formal diet was called; never resolved so diet techincally in order from 1663 - 1806; like Long Parliament,
Guelph family (Hanover) hereditary rulers of Hanover (electoral status); also inherits England because James II's Catholic line is barred; English king and Hanover elector
Hohenzollern hereditary rulers and electors of Brandenburg; eventually kings of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia Polish regiion where a lot of Germanic people live; eventually annexed by Prussia; duchy = province
szlachta Polish aristocracy (nobles); 8% of the population; sticklers for their Polish liberties (aka states rights)
liberum veto free veto; any member who disapproves can make diet explode, take idea off the playing field; no action if any member rejected, must be unanimous; characteristic of Polish diet; benefits people and individual manors (nonpowerful left alone); non efficient
Koran the Holy Book of Muslims; were laws of the Ottoman Empire derived from
sultan the ruler of Ottoman Empire; Muslim political leader; one with caliph
caliph Ottoman Empire; Muslim religious leader; one with sultan
extraterritorial privileges same concept of diplomatic immunity for foreign representatives; Turks off this for business and economic interactions (mainly France); Muslim law wont apply to you
Turk bells if they rang it was becasue Ottman Empire was potentually would invade you
hereditary provinces aka Austria, the core and oldest/original part of the Austrian Empire; has taken in Bohemia and Hungary
Pope Innocent XI jumps in to help the Austrians financially; doesn't want Ottoman Empire to take Austria (they are Muslim)
Duke Charles of Lorraine Hapsburg general in series of wars; just a duke before he eventually became king and HREmperor; wanted to protect inheritance
John Sobieski king of Poland who offers troops for Austria; doesn't want the Ottoman Empire to expand anymore; last great military effort for Poland
Prince Eugene of Savoy leader of Austrian forces in War of the Spanish Succession (gains royal title); international "free agent", consultant to Austria; offers knowledge of how to modernize technology, economy, government for Austria
Battle of Zenta 1697; decisive battle between Austria and Ottoman Empire that creates a temporary boarder between the two
Peace of Karlowitz 1699; peace treaty that called for a temporary pause "time out"; so Austria could fight in the War of the Spanish Succession
Treaty of Rastadt treaty that ends the War of the Spanish Succession; Austria annexes the Spanish Netherlands
Peace of Belgrade 1739; Austria keeps pushing the Ottoman Empire further east, results in this treaty; permanent border separating Austria from Ottoman - lasts until WWI
Trieste Austria's window to the Mediterranian Sea; seaport in Croatia
Magyar aristocracy aka Hungarian aristocracy; Magyars are the ethnic group of Hungary
Charles VI king of Austria and HREmperor; no male hier; wants his empire to stay intact after his death
Pragmatic Sanction Charles VI doesn't want his kingdom to be divided like Spain's was; only one holy line; countries agree, but once he is dead - go get em!; people try to take advantage, wars of the Austrian Succession (started by Prussia)
Maria Theresa Charles VI's daughter and only child
militarism army and its needs come first; war is glorified and it is a good thing (not be be avoided); Prussia
margrave ruler of a German state; another title you could call the elector of Brandenburg
Brandenburg state of HRE; eventually inherited Prussia in Poland; built up to become the Kingdom of Prussia; militaristic state because it is a mark state and therefore needs to be
"mark" of the HRE boarder state of empire; must build up an army for protection from possible invasion; Brandenburg obsessed with military - becomes even more so after the devistation of the 30 Years War
Teutonic Knights group in Middle Ages; militaristic, Christians who settled Northern Germany; Brandenburg is the decendents of them
Frederick William (The Great Elector) the ruler of Brandenburg who leaves Brandenburg out of the aftermath of the 30 Year's War; first man to inherit Prussia; created a small but compitent army; begins the transformation of Brandenburg to a powerful state
Frederick III of Brandenburg (Frederick I of Prussia) in exchange for 8000 troops for the Spanish Succession, receives the title of King of Prussia; receives Further Pomerania; turns Prussia into hard military state we think of; build up but doesnt unleash - more of a bargaining chip
Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia; unleashes military; starts Austrian War of Succession; militaristic society - whip if being lazy etc
Silesia taken by Frederick II during War of Austrian Succession; challenging Austria for dominance of German world; wants to weaen Austria just enough to convince HRE that it should look to Prussia instead
Europeanization the westernizing of Russia; borrowing new knowlege and institutions
Muscovy the area in and around Moscow; "true, ethnically pure" Russians
Slavic people identified with their language; term used to describe Russian people
Ivan III (The Great) threw off the Mongol rule from Russia
Great Russians aka Muscovites, those who lived in and around Moscow; therefore "true, ethnically pure" Russians
Tartar northern coast of Black Sea; group that Russians have to conquer in order to have access to Black Sea
Cossacks southern Russians; like American west in the sense that they were considered to be like cowboys
White Russians where modern day Belarus is; Bela = white, rus= russian
Little Russians in and around Kiev (Ukraine); little = lower, southern Russia; big part of Russia's agriculture, know as the "bread basket" of Russia
Archangel port city that Peter the Great uses to try to establish a Russian navy; summer-only port, wanted to get a year-round warm-water port
duma council of advisors to the tsar
streltsi Russian military corps; the Moscow nobles who were involved in politics
Ivan IV (The Terrible) considered to be the first 'czar' of Russia
czar (tzar) derives from the term Caesar; synonym for Emperor (aka the Russian leader)
Time of Troubles similar to the War of the Roses in England; fight amoung Russian nobles as to who should inherit the throne; Michael Rommanov is chosen as a compromise
Michael Romanov first of Romanov dynasty; related by marriage to Ivan IV and wasn't connected to any warring side
Romanov Dynasty Russia's ruling family from Michael Romanov through 1917; began the repression of representative institutions in Russia and became leaders similar to that of an absolute monarchy
Stephen Razin led a 1667 uprising of peasants; took a group of serfs, Cossacks, adventurers and terrorized Russian towns; "war on nobles and landlords'; result was clamping down more on peasants;
Old Believers those who rejected the reforms of the Russian Bible and the changes to their Orthodox Church
Procurator of the Holy Synod the secular connection between Peter and the church; Russian church had a Holy Synod in replace of a Petriarch; czars uses this position to weaken and control the church, indirectly placing himself in charge
German quarter a German region of Moscow that fascinated Peter the Great because of its western, modern style; sparks Peter's interest in the West
Great Northern War (1700 - 1721); Sweden vs Russia; ending marked end of Swedish imperialism and gained Russia a warm water port in St. Petersburg
Treaty of Nystadt ended Great Northern War; secured Peter the Great a piece of the Baltic Shore and a warm water port
St. Petersburg (Leningrad) Peter's window to the west; established gov. there forcing nobility to build houses; symbol of new Russia (minds facing West)
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