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A&P 2 - E3 - P1

A&P 2 - Exam 3 - Part 1 - Digestive Anatomy

The digestive system prepares food for ____________ and utilization by all the cells of the body. absorption
Food material that is not absorbed becomes _________ that is eliminated. feces
Digestion depends on both ___________ and __________ secretions. endocrine, exocrine
Digestion depends on the controlled movement of ingested food materials through the _____________. gastrointestinal (GI) tract
The main organs of the digestive system form the GI tract that extends through the _____________ cavity. abdominopelvic
Ingested food material passing through the _________ of the GI tract is ___________ the internal environment of the body. lumen, outside
The four layers of the GI tract from the outermost to innermost are _____________. serosa, muscalaris, submucosa, mucosa
Layers of the GI tract have various ___________ to enable them to perform various functions. modifications
The oral cavity is also known as the ____________. buccal cavity
The hard palate consists of what 4 bones? 2 maxillae and 2 palatines
The soft palate forms a partition between the ___________ and the _____________. mouth, nasopharynx
The soft palate is made up of _________ arranged in an _________. muscle, arch
Suspended from the midpoint of the posterior border of the arch of the soft palate is the __________. uvula
The _________ is a solid mass of skeletal muscle covered by a mucous membrane. tongue
The tongue is a solid mass of ____________ covered by a __________. skeletal muscle, mucous membrane
The act of swallowing is known as _____________. deglutition
The tongue is important in the acts of ____________ and ____________. mastication, deglutition
The _____________ anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth. lingual frenulum
The three pairs of saliva glands produce approximately __________ of saliva per day. 1 liter
What are the three pairs of saliva glands? parotid, submandibular, sublingual
___________ contribute less than 5% of total salivary volume but provide for hygiene and comfort of oral tissues. buccal glands
_________ are the largest of the paired salivary glands. parotid glands
_________ produce watery saliva containing enzymes. parotid glands
parotid glands produce watery saliva containing __________. enzymes
___________ are compound glands that contain enzyme and mucous producing elements. submandibular glands
Submandibular glands are compound glands that contain _______ and ________ producing elements. enzyme, mucous
___________ are the smallest of the salivary glands. sublingual glands
__________ produce a mucous type of saliva. sublingual glands
Baby teeth are also known as __________. deciduous teeth
How many deciduous teeth are there? 20
Teeth which replace deciduous teeth are known as ___________. permanent teeth
How many permanent teeth are there? 32
The __________ is the tube through which a bolus passes when moved from the mouth to the esophagus. pharynx
The __________ is the tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach. esophagus
The ___________ is the first segment of the digestive tube. esophagus
The size of the stomach varies with factors such as ________ and the amount of __________. gender, distention
In adults the capacity of the stomach ranges from ________ to ________. 1.0 to 1.5 liters
__________ are circular fibers arranged so that there is an opening in the center when relaxed and no opening when contracted. sphincter muscles
The __________ controls the opening of the esophagus into the stomach. cardiac sphincter
The __________ controls the outlet of the pyloric portion of the stomach into the duodenum. pyloric sphincter
Gastric glands, found in the __________, secrete most gastric juice. gastric mucosa
__________ are secretory cells found in the gastric glands that secrete the enzymes of gastric juice. chief cells
__________ are secretory cells, found in the gastric glands, that secrete hydrochloric acid and are thought to produce intrinsic factor needed for B12 absorption. parietal cells
Parietal cells, found in gastric glands, secrete ___________ and are thought to produce intrinsic factor needed for ____ absorption. hydrochloric acid, B12
In the stomach, ____________ is a thick layer of muscle with three distinct sublayers of smooth muscle tissue. gastric muscularis
The three smooth muscle sublayers of the gastric muscularis are arranged in a __________ pattern which allows the stomach to contract strongly at many angles. criss-crossing
The stomach functions as a __________ for food until it is partially digested and moved further along the _________. reservoir, GI tract
The stomach functions in the secretion of __________ to aid in the digestion of food. gastric juice
The stomach functions to break food into smaller particles and mix them with __________. gastric juice
The stomach functions to secrete ___________ factor. intrinsic
The stomach functions in limited ___________. absorption
The stomach functions to produce what hormone? gastrin
The stomach functions to protect the body from _____________ swallowed with food. pathogenic bacteria
The size of the small intestine is approximately _____ in diameter and ______ in length. 2.5 cm, 6 m
The small intestine is divided into what three parts? duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The duodenum is the uppermost part, approximately ________ long and shaped roughly like the letter ___. 25 cm, C
The jejunum is approximately _____ long. 2.5 m
The ileum is approximately _____ long. 3.5 m
The intestinal lining of the small intestine has _______ with _______. plicae, villi
________ are an important modification of the mucosal layer of the small intestine. villi
Each villus of the mucosal layer of the small intestine contains an __________, __________ and _________. arteriole, venule, lacteal
Villi are covered by a _________ made up of _______ ultrafine microvilli per cell. brush border, 1700
Villi and microvilli increase the ___________ of the small intestine hundreds of times. surface area
The large intestine is an average diameter of ____ and is approximately _______ in length. 6 cm, 1.5 to 1.8 m
The _________ is an accessory organ of the digestive system that is ______ in length and communicates with the cecum. vermiform appendix, 8 to 10 cm
The vermiform appendix communicates with the ________. cecum
________ is a large continuous sheet of serous membrane. peritoneum
Peritoneum is a large continuous sheet of __________. serous membrane
Peritoneum is made up of what two layers? parietal, visceral
_________ is a projection of the parietal peritoneum which allows free movement of each coil of the intestine and helps prevent __________. mesentery, strangulation
The __________ is the largest gland in the body. liver
The liver weighs approximately how much? 1.5 kg
The liver lies under the ___________. diaphragm
The liver occupies most of the right __________ and part of the __________. hypochondrium, epigastrium
The _________ functions to detoxify ingested toxic substances and toxic substance found in the intestines. liver
Bile salts are formed in the liver from __________ and are the most important part of bile. cholesterol
___________ are formed in the liver from cholesterol and are the most important part of bile. bile salts
Liver cells secrete approximately _______ of bile per day. 1 pint
Liver metabolism carries out numerous important steps in the metabolizing of _______, _______, and _______. proteins, fats, carbohydrates
The liver stores substances such as ______ and some _______. iron, vitamins
The liver functions in the production of important ________ proteins. plasma
The _________ is a pear-shaped sac which is ______ long and _______ wide at its broadest point. gallbladder, 7-10 cm, 3 cm
The gallbladder holds __________ of bile. 30-50 ml
The __________ lies on the undersurface of the liver. gallbladder
The gallbladder functions in the storage of __________. bile
The gallbladder functions in the concentration of bile _______ to ________. fivefold, tenfold
The gallbladder functions in the ejection of bile into the _________. duodenum
The _________ is a grayish pink-colored gland. pancreas
The pancreas is ________ long. 12 to 15 cm
The pancreas runs from the _______, behind the _________, to the ________. duodenum, stomach, spleen
The __________ of the pancreas secrete digestive enzymes. acinar units
Alpha cells within the pancreas secrete __________. glucagons
Beta cells withing the pancreas secrete __________. insulin
Infants have immature intestinal _________ in which intact proteins can pass through epithelial cells lining the tract and cause __________. mucosa, allergic reactions
Lactose intolerance affects infants who lack the enzyme _______. lactase
______ is an acute viral disease characterized by swelling of the parotid salivary glands. mumps
An inflammation of the appendix, _________ is more common in adolescents and then decreases with advancing age. appendicitis
In middle age, _______ and ________ disease are common. ulcers, gallbladder
In old age, decreased _________ fluids, slowing of _________ and reduced physical activity lead to _________ and ___________. digestive, peristalsis, constipation, diverticulosis
What are abnormal outpouchings of the large intestines? diverticulosis
Created by: K1N1V