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Anatomy T4

Digestive System

Which of the following is not part of the accessory digestive organs? Oral Cavity // Teeth // Pancreas // Salivary glands
Parasympathetic stimulation CN IX and VII stimulate Parotid and sublingual salivary glands, but what stimulates the mucin secretion? Sympathetic cervical ganglia // chewing bolus // Parasympathetic CN X // none of the above
The parotid salivary gland is stimulated Para by CN IX and release AMYLASE from the Parotid duct where in the mouth? Opposite second upper molar // lateral to the inferior frenulum // opposite upper third molar // lower lateral cheek opposite 2nd molar
The parotid duct runs parallel to the zygomatic arch and pierces what muscle? Buccinator M // Mylohyoid M // Lateral Pterygoid M // Medial Pterygoid M
Which salivary gland produces 60 - 70% of saliva during chewing? Submandibular Gland // Parotid gland // Sublingual gland // frenulum
Which Salivary Gland has multiple tiny ducts to secrete saliva? Sublingual (remember L is roman numeral for 50 = lots of tiny ducts) // submandibular // parotid // frenulum
** Two types of salivary gland secretions cells Mucous Cells and Serous cells; how are you going to remember what they secrete? Mucous Cells = Mucin (M & M) // Serous cells = ionS, lySozyme, and Salivary amylaSe (all have S in the word)
Which salivary gland does not secrete both mucus and serous secretions? Parotid // Submandibular // Sublingual
**** At what age do deciduous teeth (deciduous Tree loses leaves) start to show up? 6 - 30 months (6 and multiple of 6 = 30)
**** How many permanent teeth do we have? 32
**** What structures of the GI track are only covered on their anterolateral surfaces with visceral peritoneum and are called RETROperitoneal Organs? Duodenum // Pancreas // Ascending and Descending colon and rectum. (colon is OUT then IN then OUT then IN then OUT
**** What nerve fibers are b/t the two layers of smooth muscle (inner circular layer and Outer longitudinal layer) of the abdominal tract? Myenteric Nerve Plexus (Auerback Plexus)
All of these arteries supply blood to the abdominal GI Tract except which one? Left Renal A. // Celiac Trunk // Superior Mesenteric A. // Inferior Mesenteric A. //
What are present in the villi of the small intestines and absorb Dietary lipids? Lacteals
**** Peyer Patches Lymphatic structures called MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) are found in the small intestine and appendix, all together (aggregate) nodules are referred to as Peyer Patches.
**** the autonomic plexuses for the GI Tract follow the upaired artery of the same name: 1. Sym T5-9 / Para Vagus // 2. Sym T8 - 12/ Para Vagus // 3. Sym / Para Pelvic Splantic 1. Celiac Plexus // 2. Sup. Mesenteric Plexus // 3. Inf. Mesenteric Plexus
What is the name of the opening in the diaphragm that the esophagus passes through? Esophageal Hiatus //
About how long is the esophagus and where does it lie in relation to the trachea? 25 cm -Posterior // 25 cm -Anterior // 22 cm - Posterior // 22 cm - Anterior
**** Which of the two esophageal sphincters closes during inhalation preventing air from entering the GI tract? Superior Esophageal sphincter (Inferior is other one and is involved with GERD and keeping stomach contents in stomach)
**** What are the three phrases of swallowing? Voluntary // PHaryngeal // Esophageal (remember VEP or 88E)
How many layers of muscle does the stomach have to aid in ingestion? 3 Layer, most only have 2 layers.
**** What cells in the gastric pit secrete Hydrochloric Acid and Intrinsic Factor into the stomach? Parietal Cells ( Picture a PARENT standing in front of you as you climb back in the window with a big "Intrinsic" brain and ready to scold you with Hydrochloric Acid.
Which cell with in the stomach secretes pepsinogen? Chief Cell (Imagine a Indian CHIEF sitting with a Pepsi in one hand a Gin in the other.)
How many types of secretory cells form the gastric epithelium? 5 // 4 // 6// 2
** Name the five secretory cells in the gastric epithelium. Superficial to deep: Surface Mucous Cells // Mucous Neck Cells // Parietal Cells // Chief Cells // Enteroendocrine
** Small intestine consists of 3 specific segments what are they? Duodenum (25cm) // Jejunum (2.5m) // Ileum (3.6m) **next time you have a stomach ache think "DJ is ILL" (representing the 3 parts of Sm Intestine)
** Where does the bile and pancreatic secretions enter the duodenum? Major Duodenal papilla // minor duodenal papilla // bile duct // pancreatic duodenal duct
Of the small intestine where is the primary region for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption to take place? Jejunum // Duodenum // Stomach // Ileum
**** What is responsible for absorbing fluids and ions and compacts undigestible wastes and solidifies into feces? Large Intestine (diarrhea allows not time to reabsorb and is why it can kill you)
**** What is the muscle band that runs along the large intestine (perpendicular to Haustrum? Tenia Coli
**** Mucin for lubrication during defecation is secreted from what? Anal Sinuses (Perirectal Abscess is a very painful condition that patient will present to the ER with and will look like they have not eaten for days b/c they don't want to go # 2
****In the large intestine what cells secrete mucin to lubricate the fecal material? Goblet cells (instead of goblets on turkeys the turkeys have large intestines hanging from their face secrete millions of gallons of MUCIN
**** Haustra let you know you are looking at the large intestine, what are the the external lobules of fat on the surface of the haustra? Omental appenDICES or epiploic appendages
The liver has 4 lobes, which of these is not a lobe of the liver? Middle lobe // Right lobe // Left lobe // Caudate lobe
**** What two structures make up the inferior vertical parts of the H in regards to dividing the posterior aspect of the liver? Inferior Vena Cava and Ligamentum Venosum
**** What two structures make up the superior vertical parts of the H in regards to dividing the posterior aspect of the liver? Gall Bladder and Round ligament
**** What makes the horizontal crossbar of the H in regards to the posterior aspect of the liver? Porta Hepatis (hepatic portal vein and artery, lymphatic vessels, bile ducts, and nerves)
What anchors the liver to the abdominal wall and diaphragm? Falciform Ligament
What connects the gall bladder to the common bile duct? Cystic Duct
**** The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions: True or False True: Exo is secreting digestive enzymes (Amylase) and bicarbonate into the duodenum via pancreatic Duct
**** L and R lobes of liver drain bile into L and R hepatic Ducts, when the L and R hepatic ducts merge what do they form? Common Hepatic Duct
**** What two structures merge to form the common Bile Duct? Cystic duct and common hepatic duct
Common hepatic duct and the main pancreatic duct enter the duodenum through what? Hepatopancreatic Ampulla
Created by: cmuox2000



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