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A&P II: Blood&Immune

Mod 4

One function of blood: Transports O2, CO2, nutrients, hormones, wastes and ________. heat
The extracellular fluid found in blood vessels; blood minus the formed elements. plasma
regulates pH, body temperature and water content of cells blood
One function of blood: Protects against blood loss through ________. clotting
One function of blood: Protects against disease through _________ WBC and antibodies. phagocytic
Plasma is 92% _________. water
Plasma contains proteins, electrolytes, nutrients,& regulatory substances such as _____& enzymes. hormones
3 kinds of plasma proteins are: albumin, fibrinogen, and globulin
Plasma proteins that forms antibodies, transports lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. globulins
Organ that is a major source of plasma proteines liver
Hematocrit measures: RBC
Plasma protein that functions in blood clotting. fibrinogen
Plasma protein that transports proteins. albumin
Blood cell that combats pathogens and other foreign substances. WBC
Blood cell that transports O2 and CO2. RBC
Blood cell that operates in homeostasis; promotes vascular spasm and blood clotting. platelets
formation and development of blood cells hemopoiesis
Where does hemopoiesis occur in adults? red bone marrow
Lymphocytes begin development in red bone marrow and complete development in ___________. lymphatic tissues
blood cell that transports O2 and CO2 erythrocytes
functions in blood clotting thrombocytes
platelet thrombocyte
major phagocytes monocytes and neutrophils
produce antibodies lymphocytes
major cell of immune response lymphocyte
name of white blood cells leukocytes
realease of histamine and heparin basophils
increase in number during allergic reactions basophils & eosinophils
originate from stem cells in red bone marrow and produce memory cells T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes
True/False: T-Lymphocytes attack antigen found within body cells. True
TRUE/FALSE: B-Lymphocytes attack antigen found outside body cells. TRUE
T-lymphocytes mature in the _____, perform cell-mediated immune response, attack invaders directly. thymus
B-lymphocytes are reponsible for _____ immune response, become plasma cells that secrete antibodies that bind to antigens. humoral
AKA CD4 cells, stimulate multiplication of both B- & killer T-cells. helper T-cells
AKA CD8 cells or killer T-cells, destroy antigen-bearing cells by disrupting plasma membrane. cytotoxic T-cell
The ________T-cell is involved in cell-mediated immunity. cytotoxic
B-cells, _________, & antigen-presenting cells engulf & display antigens on their surface MHC's. dendritic cellss
The Immunoglobulin IgM activates & causes agglutination & lysis of microbes. Used in blood _________. typing
Antibody A in plasma has antigen-B
Antibody B in plasma has antigen-A
Antibody O in plasma has antigen-A and antigen-B
Antibody AB in plasma is compatible with all blood types with the same Rh factor
If the mother is Rh- and the firstborn is Rh+, the mother is given ______ right away. RhoGAM
Leukocytes combat ______ and other foreign substances that enter the body. pathogens
Lymphocytes are a type of WBC that help carry out cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses
Organ in which plasma clotting factors are synthesized. liver
Vitamin necessary for blood clotting K
Mineral necessary for blood clotting Ca2+
clot retraction is carried out by the fibrinolytic system
dissolution of a clot fibrinolysis
enzyme that promotes fibrinolysis plasmin
Agglutination is/is not a clumping of microorganisms or blood cells due an antibody-antigen reaction. is
Coagulation is/is not a series of chemical reactions that culminates in formation of fibrin threads and spools. is not
Intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation both lead to the formation of ________. Prothrombinase
Prothrombin in the plasma is converted to its active form _________. thrombin
Thrombin is an enzyme that ______ fibrinogen to fibrin. converts
Fibrinogen is active/inactive and soluble/insoluble. inactive and soluble
Fibrin is active/inactive and soluble/insoluble. active and insoluble
Fibrin is an _______ stringy substance that makes up a clot. insoluble
Substance that prevents, delays or suppresses blod clotting. anticoagulant
Substance released by mast cells and basophils that is also used clinically. heparin
"Blood thinners" are/are not given to patients in danger of forming blood clots. are
A stationary clot formed in an unbroken blood vessel, usually a vein. thrombus
A blood clot, a bubble of air, fat from broken bones, a mass of bacteria or foreign material transported by the blood. embolus
The difference between an embolus and a thrombus is that thrombus is due to the _______ mechanism of the body gone awry. repair
One function of the immune system is to drain excess ______. ISF
One function of the immune system is to absorb dietary ______ from the GI tract & deliver to the blood. lipids
The lymphatic system carries out ___________. immune responses
One function of the immune system using macrophages is to carry out ________. phagocytosis
What is the difference between ISF and lymph? location
Plasma is in the blood and has proteins, lymph is in _____ vessels and lymphatic tissue. lymphatic
Blood plasma filters ____ capillary walls to form ISF which passes into lymphatic vessels & becomes lymph. through
The skeletal muscle pump and the respiratory pump assist in the ______ of lymph. flow
The thymus gland is located in the ________ between the sternum and aorta. mediastinum
T-cells mature and develop immunocompetance in the _______ gland. thymus
The spleen is to the circulatory system as lymph nodes are to the lymphatic _______. system
The spleen is located in the ___ hypochondriac region between the stomach & the diaphragm. left
The spleen _______s blood. filter
The spleen performs phagocytosis of ruptured blood cells, formation of blood cells in fetal development proliferation of _____ cells during immune responses. B
Lymph nodes are encapsulated, act as a lymph filter & send macrophages out to ____ some foreign substances. destroy
What fluid do lymph nodes filter? lymph
Lymph ______ are follicles scattered thruout lamina propria (connective tissue) that filter lymph & send macrophages out to destroy some foreign substances. nodules
______ participate in immune responses against inhaled or ingested foreign substances. Tonsils
"Second Line of Defense": defenses were breached, send in additional/no more defenders. additional
Examples of innate, second line of ________ mechanisms are NK cells, fever, inflammation, and internal antimicrobial substances. defense
Fixed macrophages are phagocytes that engulf & destroy potentially ________ foreign substances. harmful
Monocytes form/destroy macrophages and perform antigen presentation. form
When microbes penetrate the skin or mucous membranes or bypass antimicrobial substances in the blood the next nonspecific defense against invaders are natural killer cells
Abbreviation for cells that have the ability to kill a wide variety of infected body cells & certain tumor cells. NK
NK cells attack/promote body cells that display abnormal or unusual plasma membrane proteins. attack
Generally, the response to tissue damage, tissue injury, infection or pulled tendon. inflammation
Four cardinal signs of inflammation: redness, pain, heat and swelling
4 responses to tissue injury: vasodilation, increased capillary _______, & chemotaxis & emigration of phagocytes. permeability
Increased capillary permeability due to tissue injury allows ______ to enter the area and causes swelling. proteins
A process where several different chemicals are released by microbes and inflamed tissues to attract phagocytes. chemotaxis
Three defining characteristics of adaptive immunity: specificity, ______, self-tolerance. memory
A foreign substances in the body that evokes an immune response. antigen
Snake venom, parasites, viruses, bacteria are all examples of antigens
Antigenic cells are a disfunction, ex's: cancer cells, cells that have abnormal MHC markers, tissue ____, & virus infected cells. transplantation
MHC major histocompatibility complex
HLA AKA MHC human leukocyte antigens
MHC are genetically determined markers that help T-cells recognize self from non-self
Any particular lymphocyte is capable of recognizing _____ antigen. one
Capable of mounting an immune response. immunocompetence
Method of cell-mediated immunity: _____ cells carry out the destruction of foreigners, binding the antigen. cytotoxic T
Antibody-mediated immunity: B-cells turn into plasma cells that ____ antibodies that bind to antigens. secrete
3 steps to Immunity response: Recognize, Activate, _______ Attack
The activity occuring during activate phase of an immune response cloning
Helper T-cells produce cytokines
Plasma cells secrete antibodies that ________ antigen neutralize
Plasma cells secrete antibodies that ________ bacteria immobilize
Plasma cells secrete antibodies that ________ complement activate
Plasma cells secrete antibodies that ________ and precipitate antigen agglutinate
Plasma cells secrete antibodies that ________ phagocytosis enhance
Antimicrobial substance secreted by lymphocytes, macrophages & fibroblasts infected by a virus that induce antiviral proteins that interfere with viral replication. interferon
The ingestion of microbes or other particles such as cellular debris. phagocytosis
Substance released by cytotoxic T-cells that insert into the plasma membrane of the target cell & creates channels in the membrane. perforin
Protein-digesting enzymes released by cytotoxic T-cells that trigger apoptosis. granzymes
Programmed cell death; a type of cell death that, for one thing, eliminates many potentially dangerous cells such as cancer cells. apoptosis
Substance released by cytotoxic T-cells which enter perforin channels & creates holes in the plasma membrane of the infected body cell. granulysin
A toxic molecule released by cytotoxic T-cells that activates enzymes in the target cell that cuase the DNA to fragment leading to cell death. lymphotoxin
Created by: MKC



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