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MC Neuro Test 3

merges with the periaqueductal gray. Responsible for cold reflex(shivering) Posterior hypothalamus area
plays a role in aggressive behavior Dorsomedial nucleus
satiety center, suppresses appetite; lesion here increases appetite. Ventral medial nucleus
feeding center; lesion here decreases appetite lateral hypothalamus area
involved in short term memory. chronic alcoholism can damage this structure due to lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the diet or inadequate absorption from GI tract and inadequate storage in the liver; the clinical condition is called Korsakoff's syndrome. mammillary body
secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin, and oxytocin into capillary beds of the posterior pituitary gland. Nuclei project only to posterior pituitary gland. some neurons project to ventral medial nucleus & lateral hypothalamus regulate feeding paraventricular nucleus (PV) and supraoptic nucleus (SO)
neurons release "releasing hormones" which are carried via the portall system to cells of the anterior pituitary gland and stimulate anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones. plays a role in appetite (PYY, TRH, GnRH) arcuate nucleus
secretes Gonadal Releasing Hormone (GnRH), aka luteinizing releasing hormone (LHRH) preoptic area
regulates body temperature, sweating, limbido, and maternal instincts anterior nucleus
does not have normal BBB. neurons are sensitive to osmolarity of body fluids. If osmolarity goes up, neurons stimulate neurons in PV and SO to release ADH area of the lamina terminalis
receives input from the retina for circadian rhythms for time of hormone release relative to light/dark cycles suprachiasmic nucleus
two components of the reticular formation ascending reticular formation (sleep-wake cycle) and descending reticular formation (ANS; motor movement)
located medially in upper medulla. Major spinal projections which are important for influeincing muscle tone and locomotion. Projections mostly ipsilateral. Projections so sacral neurons inhibit penile erections gigantocellular reticular necleus
located lateral to the gigantocellular nuclei. Extends from upper medulla to the motor trigeminal nucleus. Major projections to cranial nerve motor nuclei concerned with chewing, licking, swallowing, and vomiting parvicellular reticular nucleus
located near the superior cerebellar peduncles. Involved in taste, feeding and drinking. May also proviede switch that decides in ingest or spit out a morsel of food based on taste. Contains the PNEUMOTAXIC center of the respiration (turns inhalation off) parabrachial reticular nucleus
Dorsal respiratory group located in nucleus solitarius. Inspiratory neurons during quiet respiration
ventral respiratory group in nucleus ambiguus. involved in inspiration and expiration during non-quiet breathing
micturition center located medial to the locus ceruleus barrington nucleus
located in upper pons and lower midbrain. important part of reticular activating center. thought responsible for atonia during REM sleep. pedunculopontine nucleus
located in midbrain. plays a role in selective attention cuneiform and subcuneiform nucleus
located in medial ponns. major projections to spinal cord concerned with muscle tone. Projections mostly ipsilateral. divided into Oral pontine reticular and caudal pontine reticular nuclei. involved in REM. contains PPRF pontine reticular nucleus
located in medial pons. Considered "lateral (horizontal) gaze center" for eye movement paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF)
located in rostral portion of the MLF of the midbrain. Considered the "vertical Gaze center" for eye movement Rostral Interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF)
nuclei located in medial medulla, pons, and midbrain. Involved in pain inhibition and sleep cycles. May or may not be considered apart of reticular formation Raphe nuclei
not considered reticular nucleus. Bilateral structure found in posteriror region of rostral pons & caudal midbrain. diffuse synapse. involved in regulation of attention, arousal, sleep wake cycle, learning & memory, anxiety, pain & mood. norepinephrine locus ceruleus
synergy cooperation or coordination in muscle action
dyssynergy (asynergy) range, direction, amplitude and force of muscle contractions are inappropriate. Dysmetria and dysdiadochokinesia result from asynergy in muscle groups.
ataxia (dystaxia) asynergic distrubance in which there is a distortion of voluntary and associated movements. Invoves particularly the axial, shoulder, and pelvic girdle muscles.
decomposition of movement because of asynergy in muscle groups movements are separated into several "puppet-like" movements
dysmetria loss of ability to gauge the distance, speed or power of a movement, ("overshoot" or "past-pointing") or movement may be stopped before the goal is reached
hypasthenia (asthenia) decrease (loss)of muscle strength; muscles tire easily and there may be slowness in movements.
hypotonia muscle flaccidity with decrease in resistance to passive movement of the joints
diadochokinesia rapid alternating movements E.g. flexion and extension of fingers or pronation and supination of forearm
dysdiadochokinesia (adiadochokinesia) rapidly alternating movements performed clumsily, slowly or not at all.
intention tremor (action tremor) tremor not seen at rest but becomes evident on purposeful movement. Best observed in upper extremity (weight bearing masks it in lower extremity) and it becomes more evident as the hand approaches its objective (terminal tremor)
Created by: jacquess17
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