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November 3, 2011

A&P Study Guide- Skeletal System

Five functions of the skeletal system 1.Support 2.Protection 3.Attachment site for skeletal muscle 4.Blood cell production 5.Mineral storage (potassium-sodium)
List the 3 systems that work "together" to produce movement in the body 1.Skeletal System 2.Nervous System 3.Muscular System
What are the 2 divisions of the skeletal system? 1.Axial 2.Appendicular
The process of blood cel formations is called? Hematopoisis or Hemopoiesis
Where are red blood cells formed? in red marrow in spongy bone in the epiphsis
List and describe the 4 types of bones 1.Long bones 2.Short bones 3.Flat bones 4.Irregular bones
Skeletal system contains 2 types of specialized cells 1.Cartilage 2. Bones
2 types of bone tissue make up the majority of bone 1.Compact tissue 2.Spongy tissue
Bone cells are called? Osteocytes
Cartilage cells are called? Chondrocyte
the extracellular fluid that forms the matrix of bones is made up of _____________ and ___________. These 2 substances provide stength and hardness Collagen:Calcium
What is lacunae? Spaces of the matrix
What is the lamellae? Layers of concentric rings
What is the microscopic structural unit of compact bone called? Osteon
Describe what a foramen is in the bone.What does it do? passageway or opening:It lets blood vessels and nerves enter the bone
The shaft or rod-shaped portion of the long bone is called? Diaphysis
The diaphysis is made up of _________ bone Compact
What is periosteum? Is the fibrous membrane that covers the surface and acts to anchor ligaments and tendons
What is the medullary cavity? Hollowed out chamber that runs the length of the diaphysis (long bone)
What type of tissue lines the medullary cavity? Endosteum
What substance fills the inside of the medullary cavity? Fatty yellow marrow
What type of cartilage covers the outter surface of the epiphysis where the bones come together? Hyaline
What is the Hyaline cartilage also known as? Articulating
Growth in length of an "immature" long bones occurs at the___________. Epiphsal growth plate
What is the growth and length called in a "mature" bone Epiphyseal line
The epiphysis of a mature bone are formed of _________ bone Spongy
The substance that fills the "mesh like" spaces or trabeculae in spongy bone is? red bone marrow
Trabeculae Mesh-like framework
Osteocytes Bone cells
Osteoblasts bone building cels to reform new bone matrix
Oateoclasts Bone eating cells to remove bone matrix
Tendon attach bone to muscle
Ligament Attach bone to bone
Ossification process of bone formation
Ossiication is accomplished by what 2 processes 1.Intramembranous ossification 2.Endochondral ossification
Intramembranous Ossification the formation of bone tissue within a fibrous membrane makes up most of the skull bones
Endochondral Ossification The formation of bne tissue within a cartilage most bones of the body
Bones are dynamic living organs and they are continually restructured throughout life T or F? True
Physical activity causes the density and volumes of bones to be reduced. T or F? False; Maintained or increased
The major store house for calcium is? Bones
What are the 3 types of cartilage in the body? Which is the most imoportant/abundant? 1.Hyaline (most abundant)Protects and cusions 2.fibrocartilage-intervertabral disks-knee pads and symphysis pubis 3.elastic Cartilage-larynx and external ear
Both osteoclasts and osteoblasts are involved in the shaping of the bones. T or F True
Bones are prone to fracture in old age due to loss of protein fibers. T or F? True
Physical activity tends to weaken bones due to the removal of calcium salts. T or F? False
A passage way into the bone through wich blood vessels or neves pass is a/an? Foramen
Condyle Rounded knuckle like formation
What bones make up the cranium? Frontal bone, Parietal bones (2), Occipital bone, Sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone, Temporal bones (2)
List the skull bones that contain the paranasal sinuses? 1.Ethmoid 2.Frontal 3.Maxillae 4.Shenoid
What cranial bones are joined by the sagittal suture? Parietal Bones
What is the foramen magnum and in which bone does it occur? It is a large opening on the inferior surface. Occurs in the ocipital bones (skull)
The movable vertebrae of the vertebral column constists of how many of each? Cervical C1-C7 (7) Throacic T1-T12 (12) Lumbar L1-L5 (5)
The vertebrae that articulate with the ribs are the? Thoracic T1-T12
What does it mean? the atlas rotated on the axis? C1 rotates on C2...The Atlas articulates with the occipital condyles of occipital bones (support head) Axis-possesses the odontoid process (pivot point for axiz)
What are the true ribs? T1-T7 Vertebrosternal ribs- Attached to the sternum DIRECTLY by their costal cartilage
what are the false ribs? T8-T12 Vertebrochondral ribs-Costal cartilage INDIRECTLY to the sternum; attached to superior rib
What are the "floating" ribs 2 last parts of false ribs lack cartilage (unattached)
Which of the above ribs are joined directly to the sternum by the coastal cartilages? True ribs (vertebrosternal ribs) T1-T7
What is the pectoral girdle? Shoulder girdle consists of 2 clavicles (collar bone)and 2 scapulea (shoulder bones) clavicles- S-shaped bone found on the base of the neck. Scapilea- located on each side of the vertabral column-held in place by muscle no bones
An upper extremity is attached to the trunk by the ? Vertebral Column
The foramen bone that forms the point of the elbow is the? Ulna
What are the 2 bones articulate with the clavicle? 1. Sternum 2. Scapula
Another name for the hip bone is? Coxal bone
What are 3 bones form the coxal bone? 1.Ilium 2.Ischium 3.Pubis
Is the os coxae the same as the coccyx? No, Os cozae- support- attachment of the lower extrmities 3 fused bones Coccyx- tail bone
what are the differences between a male and a female pelvic girdle? Female- generally lighter with non0-prominate process structure allows child birth; wide; oval pelvic opening male- Heavier with more prominate processes; narrow pelvic opening (heart shaped)
what bones form the knee joint? Femur, Tibia
Pivot joint Allow rotational movement in single joint. ex. Atlas & Axis
Immovable Joint bones are tightly joined seperated by thin fibrous connective tissue (no movement at joint) ex.skull bone (sutures)
Slightly movable joint bones seperated by a layer or cartilage or fibrous connective tissue (limited flexibility) ex. joints between vertrae, symphsis pubis
Freely moveable Hinge joint Allow movement in one direction only ex. knee joints and elbow joints
Balland socket joint A round head of one bone fits into a concavity on another bone movement may be rotational in any place ex. hip joints and shoulder joints
Gliding joint Involve sliding of bones across eachother; allows sliding and twisting. ex. carpal and tarsal bones; clavical and scapula
What is synovial fluid? lubricates the joint (serious fluid)
the articular surfaces of the bones in freely movable joints are covered with? Cartilage
A broken bone in which part of the bone sticks through or pierces the skin is what kind of fracture? Compound
Another name for the breast bone is the Sternum
Arthritis characterized by inflammation, swelling and pain
Rheumatoid arthritis results in ossification of joint, making it immovable (painful)
Osteoarthritis most common- loss of articular cartilage makes moement restricted and painful
Bursitis inflammation of bursa (fluid filled sac near joint)
Osteoporosis weakness of bones due to loss of calcium salts
Scoliosis, Lordosis, Kyphosis Spinal curvatures S-lateral K-Thorasic L-lumbar
Osteomyelitis Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow due to bacterial infection
Rickets childhood disease due to difficency in calcium salts in bone (may have bowed legs)
Dislocation displacement of bones forming the joint
Herniated Disk intervertebral disc prottudes out deyond vertarae
Sprain tearing or stretching of the ligaments and tendons without dislocation
Strain muscles that are pulles
Blood cell production s a function of the seletal system. T or F True
The weight bearing portion of a vertebrae is the
What bones contain the external auditory metus? Temporal bones
What are the phalanges? Bones of the fingers
What are the zygomatic bones? Cheek Bones...prominences of the cheek and the floors and lateral walls of the eye orbits
Differentiate between carpals and arsals;metacarpals and metatarsals. Carples are wrists, tarsals are ankles; metacarpals is the hanf and metatarsals are the feet
the only movable bone in the skull is? Jaw Bone or mandable
the axial skeleton includes wat bones? Skull, vertebral column and torasic cage
Articulation a joint formed between 2 bones
Created by: bjbert



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