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Vasc3 quiz 1/midterm

quick lists for 1st quiz in Vasc III + midterm

5 hand positions for diagnosing Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Resting Elevated Pledge Stick up Symptomatic
2 causes of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome • Majority of cases - neurogenic compression of the brachial plexus • Small percentage of cases - compression of the subclavian artery or vein
2 symptoms of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: o Numbness or tingling of the arm o Pain or aching in the shoulder or forearm
4 symptoms of Compartment Syndrome: • Paresthesia • Pain • Weakness of the involved muscle • Late sign is loss of pulse
2 diseases affecting primarily women: Fibromuscular Displasia and Raynaud’s Syndrome
2 diseases affecting primarily males: Buerger’s disease and Popliteal Entrapment Syndrome
4 types of Fibromuscular Displasia: • intimal fibroplasia • medial fibroplasia – most common form • medial hyperplasia • perimedial dysplasia
3 types (locations) of Coarctation of the Aorta: Preductal Juxtductal Postductal
7 Treatments —Raynaud’s: • Cessation of smoking • Cold/stress avoidance • Calcium channel blockers • Sympathetic blocking agents • Treat associated disease • Cervico-thoracic sympathectomy • Micro-revascularization
4 Non-imaging techniques used in penile exams: • CW Doppler (8-10 MHz transducer) • Volume plethysmography • Photoplethysmography (PPG) • Strain-gauge plethysmography (SPG)
Normal PBI = 0.7- 1.0
Marginal PBI = 0.6 – 0.7
Abnormal PBI = less than 0.6
PSV after injection in erectile state (at 5 minutes post injection)-- Normal: ≥35 cm/sec
PSV after injection in erectile state (at 5 minutes post injection): Marginal = 25-34 cm/sec
PSV after injection in erectile state (at 5 minutes post injection)-- Reduced: <25 cm/sec
Other name for Buerger’s disease: thromboangitis obliterans
Other name for thromboangitis obliterans: Buerger’s disease
2 Types of Small Vessel Occlusive Disease – Fixed (Arteritis) and Vasospastic (Raynaud's)
2 locations for Fibromuscular Displasia: Renal arteries and ICA
2 most common locations for FMD to occur: ICA FMD: distal segment of ICA / Renal FMD: Mid-distal portion of renal artery
2 types of Raynaud's: Primary and Secondary
3 sites to Doppler the penis: Dorsal, Ventral, and Lateral aspects
2 measurements suggestive of a venous leak in penile exam PSV >35 cm/sec and EDV > 6 cm/sec
Rate of blood flow necessary for hemodialysis: 250ml/min
2 locations for a Brescia-Cimino Fistula: Radial artery to cephalic vein (most common) // Ulnar artery to basilic vein
2 characteristics Brescia-Cimino Fistulas are known for: Long-term patency and low complication rate
2 types of access grafts: Common straight and common loop
4 types of common straight access grafts: * Distal radial artery to cephalic vein * Distal radial to median cubital vein * Distal radial to basilic vein * Distal brachial artery to proximal basilic or axillary vein
5 types of common loop access grafts: * Distal brachial artery to cephalic vein * Distal brachial artery to median cubital vein * Distal brachial artery to basilic vein * Proximal brachial artery to axillary vein * Superficial femoral artery to greater saphenous vein
6 Complications – Graft/AV fistulas: * Thrombus/occlusion * Stenosis * Infection * Arterial steal * Distal venous hypertension * Aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms (common)
2 types of abnormal AV fistula: congenital or traumatic
2 clinical presentations of abnormal AV fistula: Bruit and leg/arm ischemia
Most common site for AV fistula due to trauma: Femoral junction (d/t cardiac cath)
If fistula is large and chronic, both arterial and venous flow may be ________ (distal to the fistula) Retrograde
Compared to the normal artery, flow in the artery proximal to the fistula is greatly ___________, especially during ___________. increased, diastole
With an abnormal fistula, proximal venous flow also _________& becomes more _________. increases, pulsatile
BP in the distal artery is always _________ past the fistula reduced
Arterial flow is normal if the resistance _________ the distal ____________ ________. exceeds, vascular bed
Due to pressure (with fistula), valves that would prevent retrograde flow become ____________. incompetent
Peripherally located fistulas less likely to cause ______, but more likely to cause _________ CHF, ischemia
The ______ and _______ predict the resistance of the fistula diameter and length
Fistulas can involve ________ & ________ arteries and veins as well as __________ arteries and veins proximal & distal , collateral
3 symptoms of leg/arm ischemia: Pain, Claudication, and Pallor
In AV malformation, dilated, anomalous ________ shunt blood too quickly from arterial to venous side capillaries
AV malformation, 2 common presentations: seizure and hemorrhage
2 treatments for larger fistulas: Surgery to block abnormal channel or Endovascular coils inserted into fistula
In evaluation of AV Fistulas, normal flow direction in distal artery should be: Antegrade
In evaluation of AV Fistulas, ________ flow in distal artery may occur due to chronic large fistula Retrograde
Similar to AV fistulas, _______________ consists of a congenital abnormality which is the most common _________ ___________. AV malformation , cerebrovascular malformation
Created by: lefut